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[Vol. II. in 'preparation. 


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*^* [111 the section No. XXXI. will be found the sermon preached 
by Buddha to his son Eahula on " Falsehood." This sermon or 
exhortation is alluded to by Asoka in the Edict of Bhabra.] 


Dhammapada (which, according to the Chinese Gloss, 
may be rendered " Scriptural Texts " or " Verses ") is a 
work of much importance in the study of Buddhism. It 
contains, as its title signifies, authentic Texts gathered 
from ancient canonical books — and these Texts are gener- 
ally connected with some incident or other in the His- 
tory of Buddha, helping to illustrate everyday life in 
India at the time when they were written, as well as 
the method of teaching adopted by the Founder of this 
remarkable Eeligion. Not only does the general tone 
pervading these verses illustrate the spirit of Buddha's 
doctrine, 1 but by a critical examination of particular 
passages, we are enabled to solve some of the difficul- 
ties which always attend the interpretation of words and 
phrases used in a religious sense. We already possess 
two translations of this work from the Pali, — one by 
y. FausboU (1855), the other by Max Miiller (1870)2 — 
and in addition to these there are the criticisms of Mr. 
James D'Alwis and the late Professor Childers on the latter 
translation — so that for all necessary purposes we have 

^ Mr. Spence Hardy has observed 2 ]^j._ Gogerly lias also translated 

that a collection might be made from 350 verses of Dhammapada (out of 

the precepts of this work, that in the 423). — Spence Hardy, "E. M." p. 28. 

purity of its ethics could scarcely [A. "Weber's German translation ap- 

be equalled from any other heathen peared in i860.] 
author. — "Eastern Monachism," 169 


sufficient material before us for a correct knowledge of the 
work in question. I should not under these circumstances 
have undertaken to produce another translation bearing 
the same title, but for the fact that no copy of Dhammapada 
has hitherto been known to exist in China. It has been 
my good fortune to have had brought under my imme- 
diate examination the great body of books comprising the 
Chinese Buddhist Canon. Amongst these I found tfhere 
were four copies of a work bearing the title of "Law verses" 
or " Scriptural texts/' which on examination were seen to 
resemble the Pali version of Dhammapada in many par- 
ticulars. Supposing that some knowledge of these books 
would be acceptable to the student, I have undertaken the 
translation i of the simplest of them, and with such notices 
of the other copies as are suggested by a brief comparison 
of them one with the other, I now offer my book for 
candid consideration. 

1 It may here be stated, in order literal translation of tlie Chinese 
to disarm unfriendly criticism, that Text, but only such an abstract of it 
I do not profess to have produced a as seemed necessary for my purpose. 




There are four principal copies of Dliammapada in 
Chinese. The first, approaching most nearly to the Pali, 
was made by a Shaman " Wei-chi-lan " (and others), who 
lived during the Wu dynasty, about the beginning of the 
third century of the Christian era. As this is the earliest 
version, we will consider it first. 

The title by which it is known is Fa-kluu-King)- 
that is, " The Sutra of Law Verses." The symbol lilieu 
(^) does not necessarily mean " a verse," but is applied 
to any sentence or phrase : the rendering " Law texts " or 
" Scripture texts " would therefore be more correct were 
it not that in the Preface to this work the symbol is 
explained by " Gatha," which is stated by Childers {suh 
voce) to mean " a verse or stanza," or generally " a ^loka 
or anushtubh stanza." ISTothing can be more precise 
than the language of the Chinese Preface (to which I 
have alluded in the " Eeport on the Catalogue of the 
Chinese Tripitaka," p. 113), in wliich it is stated that 
the work we are considering is the " Tan-po-kee," S; 
^j^ \^, which can only be restored to Dharmaga- 
thapadam, and as gathapadam is used for ''a stanza," 
we come back to the meaning of " Scripture, or Law- 

^ In the Encyclopcedia "Chi-yuen- as "Fa,-tsah," i.e., "Scriptural Mis- 
fa-pao-khan-tung-tsung-lu" (Kiouen Cillanies." 
xi. fol. Y)} t^s work is also quoted 


stanzas." Of course, the Chinese affords no assistance in 
solving the question " whether ' pada/ in the singular, can 
ever mean a collection of verses/' 1 and the other difficulties 
attachini^ to the correct rendering? of this word from the 
Pali ; but as an independent testimony to the sense of the 
expression " Dhammapada," as it was understood by the old 
translators in China, it may be of value 2 The Preface 
further explains that these verses are "choice selections 
from all the Sutras," which agrees with what we know from 
actual comparison, as also from the testimony of indepen- 
dent writers.^ The Chinese Sutras, e.g., contain many pas- 
sages found in Dhammapada — compare the following, p. 49 : 
" As the bee collects nectar and departs without injuring 
the flower or its colour and scent, so let the sage dwell 
upon earth," with Catena, p. 150, "As the butterfly alights 
on the flower and destroys not its form or its sweetness, but 
takes a sip and then departs, so the mendicant follower of 
Buddha (sage) takes not nor hurts another's possessions." 
And the stanza following this (No. 50) is but a part 
of the same traditional record as coming from a former 
Buddha ( Wessabha) : " Not the failure of others, nor their 
sins of commission or omission, but his own misdeeds and 
nes^lifrences should the sas^e take notice of." So in the 
Chinese : " He observes not another man's actions or 
omissions, looks only to his own behaviour and conduct." 
(Op. cit., p. 159.) Again, let us compare v. 183 with the 
Chinese record of Konagamana Buddha (Catena, 159), 

1 But we must remember the re- deus. — " Jul. Methode," p, 71), -where 
mark of the translator of " Sutta "pada" is equal to the Chinese 
Nipata," that in old Pali works the "tsi," which means "a trace," or, 
singular is frequently used for the "footstep." (For other examples, I'^t/g 
plural. — "Sutta Nipata," by Sir N. the Chinese version of the "Lotus," 
Coomara Swami. Introd. xix. (TrLib- compared with that by Burnouf, p. 
ner & Co.) 155. Also "Jul. Hiouen Thsang," 

2 It may be as well to state, how- iii. p. 498, &c.) 

ever, that the word " pada " is in vari- ' Mr. James D'Alwis, for example, 

ous compounds rendered by "traces," in his "Review of Max MiiUer's 

or "vestigia,^' in the Chinese, such, Dhammapada," pp. 92, 93, ss., and 

for example, as in the word "Kari- elsewhere, 
padadeva " {elephantis vestigia hahens 


" Xot to commit any sin, to do good, and to purify one's 
mind, this is the teacliing of the Awakened ; " the Chinese 
is, " Practising no evil way, advancing in the exercise of 
virtue, purifying both mind and will, this is the doctrine 
of all the Buddhas." Again, stanza 2 14 in the Pali is this, 
" From lust comes grief, from lust comes fear, he who is 
free from lust knows neither grief nor fear." This is 
evidently the same as the testimony of Kasyapa Buddha, 
" A man from lust engenders sorrow, and from sorrow 
guilty fear ; banish lust and there will be no sorrow, and 
if no sorrow then no guilty fear." {Catena, p. 200.) 
Without quoting further at length, we w411 simply note a 
few other agreements, e.g., compare stanza 239 with Catena, 
p. 201, § 34; stanza 281 with the record of Kasyapa 
{Catena, 159); stanza 292 with p. 264 {op. cit.) ; stanza 
372 with p. 247 {op. cit.) ; and in many other cases. But 
perhaps the most curious agreement is to be found in 
various stanzas which occur in the Chinese version of the 
" Lankavatara Sutra," which was translated into Chinese 
by a priest Gunabhadra, early in the Sung dynasty {Circ. 
420 A.D.). Of these I shall only select one as throwing 
some liglit on a difficult verse in the Pali ; I refer to w. 
294, 295, which run thus : " A true Brahmana, though he 
has killed father and mother and two valiant kings, 
though he has destroyed a kingdom with all its subjects, 
is free from guilt." 

" A true Brahmana, though he has killed father and 
mother and two holy kings, and even a fifth man, is free 
from guilt." 

With respect to these verses, both Professor Max Miiller 
and Professor Childers are inclined to reejard them as 
showing that a truly holy man who commits such sins as 
those specified is nevertheless guiltless. But in the third 
book, p. 3, of the " Lankavatara Sutra " we find the follow- 
ing exposition of this doctrine : — " At this time Mahamati 
Bodhisatwa addressed Buddha and said, ' According to the 


assertion of tlie Great Teacher, if a male or female disciple 
should commit either of the unpardonable sins, he or she, 
nevertheless, shall not be cast into hell. World-honoured 
One ! how can this be, that such a disciple shall escape 
though guilty of such sins ? ' To whom Buddha replied, 
' Mahamati ! attend, and weigh my words well ! . . . . 
What are these five unpardonable sins of which you speak ? 
They are these, to slay father or mother, to w^ound a 
Eahat, to offend [i.e., to place a stumbling-block in the 
way of) the members of the sangha (church), to draw 
the blood from the body of a Buddha. Mahamati ! say, 
then, how a man committing these sins can be guilt- 
less ? In this way; — is not Love {Tanlid) which covets 
pleasure more and more, and so produces ' birth ' — is not 
this the mother (mdtd) of all ? And is not ' ignorance ' 
{aviclyd) the father {pita) of all ? To destroy these two, 
then, is to slay father and mother. And again, to cut off 
and destroy those ten ' Meshas ' (Ch. sJii) which like the rat, 
or the secret poison, work invisibly, and to get rid of all 
the consequences of these faults (i.e., to destroy all material 
associations), this is to wound a Eahat. And so to cause 
offence and overthrow a church or assembly, what is this 
but to separate entirely the connection of the five sJcan- 
clhas .? (' five aggregates' which is the same word as that 
used above for the ' Church.') And again, to draw the blood 
of a Buddha, w^hat is this but to wound and get rid of the 
seven-fold body by the three methods of escape. (The 
seven-fold body, literally ' the body w4th seven kinds of 
knowledge' — the number seven in this connection evi- 
dently runs parallel with the seven Buddhas, whose blood 
is supposed to be spilt; the three methods of escape 
are the same as the three ' yanas,' or vehicles ; viz., 
Sravakas, Bodhisatwas, Buddhas). Thus it is, Mahamati, 
the holy male or female disciple may slay father and 
mother, wound a Eahat, overthrow the assembly, draw the 
blood of Buddha, and yet escape the punishment of the 
lowest hell (avichi). And in order to explain and enforce 


this more fully, the World-honoured One added the 
followincj stanzas : — 


' Lust, or carnal desire, tins is the Mother, 
" Ignorance," this is the Father, 
The highest point of knowledge, this is Buddha, 
All the " Kleshas " these are the Rahats, 
The five Skandhas, these are the Priests, 
To commit the five impardonahle sins 
Is to destroy these five 
And yet not suffer the pains of helh' " 

These comparisons will be sufficient to show the plan 
of the work under consideration, and to confirm the 
statement of the writer of the preface, " that these 
stanzas are but choice selections from the various 
Sutras." 1 We shall now understand the remark that 
" there are various arrangements or editions of the Dham- 
mapada " (Chinese Preface), for it seems plain that these 
selections from the canonical books were not made at any 
one time, or generally accepted in their present form, 
until a much later period than the compilation of the 
Sutras themselves. The lanc^uaere of the Preface is 
equally distinct on this point, " It was from these works, 
viz., the Canonical Scriptures, that the Shamans in after 
ages copied out various Gathas, some of four lines, and 
some of six lines,^ and attached to each set of verses 
a title according to the subject therein explained." We 
may thus account for the various editions of the work 
which exist in China, compiled from original versions in 
India, shewing that there existed in that country also not 
one, but several copies of these "excerpta." AVe must 
accept Dhammapada then in its present form, simply as a 
redaction made at an early period from canonical books, 
for the purpose of ready reference, or as a religious " vade- 

^ Which Sdtras form the second of - These lines probably correspond 
the three baskets of the Buddhist to those named by Spence Hardy, — 
Canon. {Eastern Monach, p. 28). 


The Chinese copies of this work, without exception, 
refer its first arrangement to the venerable Dharmatrata i 
(vid. Jiilien, sub voce Fa-kieou, iii. p. 441). The difB.- 
culty is to find out when Dharmatrata lived. He was 
certainly the author of the Samyuktabhidharma Shaster 
— but although the Chinese version of this book is before 
me, it gives no clue to the time in which its author 
flourished. Burnouf (Introduction, pp. 566, 567) alludes 
to the Sthavira Dharmatrata, otherwise Bhadanta Dhar- 
matrata, as one of the most illustrious of the earliest 
Apostles of Buddhism. But there is much confusion in 
the whole matter. Whether Sthavira Dharmatrata is a 
different personage from Bhadanta Dharmatrata, and 
when either of them lived is not explained. Suffice it 
to say, that the author of Dhammapada is all along spoken 
of in our Chinese books as " Tsun-che-fa-kteou," that is, 
Arya Dharmatrata, and in the preface to the " Ch'uh-yau- 
king " he is said to have been the uncle of " Po-su-meh," 
i.e., Vasumitra. If this patriarch be the one " who took a 
principal part in the last revision of the Canon, as the 
President of the Synod under Kanishka" (Eitel, sub voce, 
Vasumitra), then we have fair ground for assigning him an 
approximate date. Kanishka we assume to have reigned 
about 40 B.C., and if so, then Dharmatrata may with much 
probability be placed some thirty years earlier — or about 

70 B.C. 

The question to be considered now is whether it is likely 
that a book compiled at this date would have gained such 
authority as to be accepted as semi-canonical by the 
numerous translators who flocked to China some two or 
three hundred years afterwards. (We dismiss for the 
present the consideration of the relation of this work to 
that known in the South.) Considering the wonderful 

1 According to T^ran^tha, Dharma- hashikas. He distinguishes this Bha- 

tr&ta was cotemporary with the Brah- danta Dh. from another Dh., who 

man Rahula ; he, with Ghoshaka, collected the Ud^navarga. (Schief- 

Vasumitra, and Buddhadeva, were ner's German transl., p. 68.) 
the four great Acharyas of the Yaib- 


impetus given to Buddhist researcli at tlie time alluded 
to, there can be no difficulty in accepting this position. 
The writings of Asangha, Vasubandhu, Nagarjuua, Vasu- 
mitra, and others who lived during the first century B.C., 
are accepted in the Northern School of Buddhism as 
authoritative. They have just that weight and character 
wliich works written by those called " Fathers of the 
Christian Church " have in Christendom. In the Chinese 
Tripitaka there is no effort to conceal the human composi- 
tion of these books. On the title page of every Shaster 
the author's name is given — they are called " Sutras " or 
" Shasters " — but yet with the plain intimation that they 
were drawn up by men who lived long after the age of 
what we should call " inspiration." If, then, these other 
writers are regarded with reverence, equally so we may 
assume was the author of the present work. In any case 
it is of importance that we have here provided for us a 
definite assertion as to Dhammapada, with respect to its 
date and author — about which the Southern Eecords, be- 
yond the general assignation of this work to a portion of 
the canon, affirm nothing. 

It now remains to consider what reliance may be 
placed generally on these Chinese versions of the Sacred 
Books of the Buddhists. At the very outset of this con- 
sideration we observe that they were made, if not by, yet 
under the immediate direction of, Indian priests. It would 
be as incorrect to refer the originals of the Christian 
Scriptures now used in China to native writers, as 
to make the Buddhist books found there a part of the 
native literature. Buddhism was brought to China by 
missionaries from India, and the books forming the canon 
(except where expressly named as Chinese) are transla- 
tions made by those men from some Indian vernacular. 
This leads to another remark in correction of an oft-re- 
peated assertion that Chinese Buddhist books are all 
translations of Sanscrit works found in Nipal. It is so 
plain to any one conversant with the subject that such is 


not the case, that any lengthened remarks on the point 
seem to be unnecessary. We have abeady in English 
a translation of the Patimokkham, or, as it is known in 
Sanscrit, the Pratimoksha, from the Chinese; and this 
version is found to agi-ee accurately (except in some 
additions of a later date) with the translation from 
the Pali by Mr. Gogerly. Then again, we have 
the Samajataka in Chinese, agreeing in the main with 
the Pali ; the Brahmajala Sutra (Case Ixxvii. Cata- 
logue) ; the Parinirvana Sutra (do.) ; the Sigalovada 
(do.) ; the Sardula Kama Sutra (Case xxxii.), and many 
others, which from internal evidence we may certainly 
conclude were not translated from Sanscrit. And that 
this is so, is corroborated by the fact that many of the 
Buddhist books known in China were brought immediately 
to that country from Ceylon by Fa-hien, and translated 
into Chinese directly from the sacred language of that 
country. But before the time of Pa-hien there had been 
a continuous migration of Indian priests into China, who 
brought with them books from Northern and Central 
India, written, therefore, in the dialects of those countries, 
and wliich were from them carefully translated. ^ These 
remarks will be sufficient to correct the mistake alluded 
to without going into further particulars. Nor would 
even so much have been necessary if the statements as 
to the character of Chinese Buddhist translations had not 
been endorsed by some leading scholars of the time. Take, 
for example, the remark of Professor Childers (" Contem- 
porary Eeview," February 1876), that '' the Northern books 
(so-called), [which of course include the Chinese,] are of 
as little value for a critical examination of Buddhism, as 
works found in Abyssinia bearing on the Christian religion 
would be for an exact acquaintance with Christianity." It 
is plain, however, that the Buddhist works in China are of 
great value for an exact knowledge of that religion, because 

1 In the present work we have the Sanscrit, " Gridhrakuta," "Eaja- 
forms, "Gijjhakuto," "Eajagaha," griha," " Sravasti," &c. 
"Sivatthi," &;c., to represent the 


they are faithful versions of works everywhere known in 
India, not only during the early period of its history, but 
also throughout its development — or, to put it into plain 
figures, the books found in China afford us a consecutive 
catena of writings dating from at least loo B.C. to 600 A.D., 
that is, during a period of 700 years. More than this can 
scarcely be desired for a perfect study of any religious 

We come now to a comparison of this earliest transla- 
tion with that from the Pali. The Fa-kheu-king contains 
thirty-nine chapters against the twenty-six of the Southern 
edition, and 760^ stanzas against 423. We are told, how- 
ever, in the preface that the original work consisted of 
twenty-six chapters and 500 stanzas; and as in Buddhist 
calculations the next highest round number is frequently 
used to denote the exact number intended, we have in this 
statement sufficient evidence to show that the oriirinal 
from which our translation was made consisted of the 
same chapters, and probably the same number of verses, 
as that known in the South — in other words, that they 
were identical. If so, the question arises, Who added the 
thirteen additional sections ? It would appear from the 
wording of the preface that this was the work of the 
Indian missionary (or refugee) Tsiang-im, who added 
these sections after due consultation \tsz& wan], tak- 
ing care to verify them from ancient sources. If this 
be so (the passage is confessedly obscure), it would lead 
us to suppose that the original manuscript brought 
to China was the same as that known in Ceylon, the 
differences which occur between the two beins^ attri- 
butable to special reasons existing at the time of the 

^ In tlie preface it is stated that summary of stanzas — there are Jlre 

there are only 752 stanzas. The verses more in the text than in the 

difference between this and the sum index in that version, and in the 

of the headings of each chapter must Chinese eir/ht more {Vide Max Miil- 

be accidental. It is curious that a ler's Dh. ix. n. ) 
similar discrepancy occurs in the Pali 



I will now proceed to give a tabular statement of the 
chapters and verses which compose the Chinese and Pali 
versions respectively, so as to render a comparison of the 
two easy: — 


Title of Chapter. 

1. Impermanence . 

2. Inciting to Wisdom 

3. The Sravaka 

4. Simple Faith 

5. Observance of Duty 

6. Reflection . 

7. Loving Kindness 

8. Conversation 

9. Twin Verses 

10. Carelessness 

11. Thought . 

12. Flowers 

13. The Fool . 

14. The Wise Man 

15. The Rahat 

16. The Thousands 

17. Evil Conduct 

18. Punishment 

19. Old Age . 

20. Self Love . 

21. The World 

22. Buddha 

23. Rest and Repose 

24. Pleasure . 

25. Anger 

26. Impurity . 

27. Holding to the Law 

28. The Way . 

29. Miscellaneous 

30. Hell 

31. The Elephant 

32. Lust . 

33. Advantageous Service 

34. The Shaman 

35. The Brahmacharin 

36. Nirvana . 

37. Birth and Death 

38. Profit of Religion 

39. Good Fortune . 

No. of 

















Title of Chapter. 


















No. of 


Twin Verses 

. 20 

Reflection . 

. 12 

Thought . 

. II 


. 16 

The Fool . 

. 16 

The Wise Man . 

. 14 

The Venerable . 

. 10 

The Thousands . 

. 16 

Evil . 

• 13 


. 17 

Old Age . 

. ir 

Self . . . . 

p 10 

The World 

. 12 

The Awakened . 

. 18 

Happiness . 

. 12 

Pleasure . 

. 12 


. 14 

Impurity . 

. 21 

The Just . 

• 17 

The Way . 

• 17 

Miscellaneous . 

. 16 

The Backward Cours 

e . 14 

The Elephant . 

. 14 


. 26 


The Bhikshu . 

• 23 

The Brahmana . 

• 41 

We see, then, that from the ninth chapter to the thirty- 
fifth (with one exception, viz., the thirty-third) the two 


works contain the same succession of subjects, whilst 
there are seventy-nine more stanzas in the Chinese than 
in the Pali throughout the chapters common to each. 
We may reasonably gather from the entire considera- 
tion that the version of Dhammapada by Dharmatrata, 
which was brought to China by Wei-chi-lan, was itself 
a recension of an earlier edition of the same work 
known in India — that Dharmatrata, whilst retaining the 
number of chapters and their subjects of consideration, 
added some additional stanzas to them, and that this work 
so revised or re-edited, was accepted by the Council held 
under the presidency of his nephew Vasumitra, during 
the reign of Kanishka, and thus acquired the reputation 
of a canonical portion of the Tripitaka.l If, however, the 
additions made to the number of stanzas in the different 
chapters can be referred to the Chinese editors (themselves 
Indians), then we may argue that the copies of Dhammapada, 
known in the north and south, may both be compilations 
of Dharmatrata, and that he was the first to draw up this 
collection of texts and to give it (from his own personal 
authority) the character of a canonical book. 

With respect to the accuracy of the Chinese version, it 
will be plain to every Chinese scholar from the following 
passage, that entire reliance may be placed on it. I wiU 
select the twenty-fifth chapter of the Pali and the thirty- 
fourth of the Chinese for comparison : the former con- 
tains twenty-three stanzas, the latter thirty-two. The 
title in the one case is " The Shaman," in the other " The 
Bhikshu " : 

1 There are some references to Yaibhashikas. It -would not be sur- 

Dharmatrata in 11. Wassilief s work prising if we found that the edition 

on "Buddhism" (le Bouddisme, of Dhammapada prepared by Dhar- 

Paris, 1865) viz., in §§ 48, 50, 270. matrata, belonged to the Vaibhashika 

From these it would seem that he school, whilst that known in Ceylon 

was one of the great leaders of the was compiled by the Sautrantikas. 



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Eestraint in the eye is good, good is restraint in the 
ear, in the nose restraint is good, good is restraint in the 


In the body restraint is good, good is restraint in 
speech, in thought restraint is good, good is restraint in 
all things. A Bhikshu, restrained in all things, is freed 
from all pain. 


He who controls his hand, he who controls his feet, he 
who controls his speech, he who is well controlled, he 
who delights inwardly, who is collected, who is solitary 
and content, him they call Bhikshu. 

The Bhikshu who controls his mouth, who speaks 
wisely and calmly, who teaches the meaning and the 
Law, his word is sweet. 

He who dwells in the Law, delights in the Law, 
meditates on the Law, follows the Law, that Bhikshu will 
never fall away from the true Law. 


Let him not despise what he has received, nor ever 
envy others : a mendicant who envies others does not 
obtain peace of mind. 


A Bhikshu who, though he receives little, does not 
despise what he has received, even the gods will praise 
him, if his life is pure, and if he is not slothful. 


He who never identifies himself with his body and 
soul, and does not grieve over what is no more, he indeed 
is called a Bhikshu. 


The Bhikshu who acts with kindness, who is calm in 
the doctrine of Buddha, will reach the quiet place (ISTir- 
vaTia), cessation of natural desires, and happiness. 

Bhikshu, empty this boat ! if emptied, it will go 
quickly; having cut off passion and hatred, thou wilt 
go to Mrva?ia. • 

Cut off the five (senses), leave the five, rise above the 
five ? A Bhikshu, who has escaped from the five fetters, 
he is called Oghati^wia, " Saved from the flood." 


Meditate, Bhikshu, and be not heedless! Do not 
direct thy thought to what gives pleasure ! that thou 
mayest not for thy heedlessness have to swallow the iron 
ball (in hell), and that thou mayest net cry out when 
burning, " This is pain." 



Without knowledge there is no meditation, without 
meditation there is no knowledge ; he who has knowledge 
and meditation is near unto ]S^irva7^a. 

A Bhikshu who has entered his empty house, and 
whose mind is tranquil, feels a more than human delight 
w^hen he sees the law clearly. 

As soon as he has considered the origin and destruc- 
tion of the elements (khandha) of the body, he finds 
happiness and joy which belong to those who know the 
immortal (NirvaTia). 

And this is the be^ninsj here for a wise Bhikshu : 
watchfulness over the senses, contentedness, restraint 
under the Law; keep noble friends whose life is pure, 
and who are not slothful. 

Let him live in charity, let him be perfect in his 
duties; then in the fulness of delight he will make an 
end of suffering. 

As the Vassika-plant sheds its withered flowers, men 
should shed passion and hatred, ye Bhikshus ! 

The Bhikshu whose body and tongue and mind are 
quieted, who is collected, and has rejected the baits of the 
world, he is called Quiet. 


Eouse tliyself by thyself, examine thyself by thyself, 
thus self-protected and attentive wilt thou live happily, 
Bhikshu ! 


Tor self is the lord of self, self is the refuc^e of self: 
therefore curb thyself as the merchant curbs a good horse. 

The Bhikshu, full of delight, who is calm in the doc- 
trine of Buddha, will reach the quiet place (Nirvana), 
cessation of natural desires, and happiness. 

He who, even as a young Bhikshu, applies himself to 
the doctrine of Buddha, brightens up this world, like the 
moon when free from clouds. 

After looking through this extract, we cannot doubt the 
fidelity of the Chinese version of Dhammapada, — and 
this section is only a fair sample of the whole. 

This also helps to clear the way to a fair estimate of the 
value of Chinese Buddhist books generally. 

The English version which follows is not made from 
the Text we have just considered, but from another about 
which I now proceed to speak. The " Fa-kheu-pi-ii," 1 — 
i.e. parables connected with the book of scriptural texts — 
was translated by two Shamans of the western Tsin 
dynasty (a.d. 265 to a.d. 313). As its name denotes, it 
contains certain parables, or tales, connected with the verses 
which follow them, and which prompted their delivery. 
How far these tales are genuine may be difficult to deter- 
mine. Professor Max Miiller has already observed that 

1 In the " Chi-yuen-fa-pao-khan- (Dhammapada), and it is explained 

tung-tsung-lu," Kiouen x. fol. i, this in the margin that the verses are 

work is quoted as " Fa-kheu-pen-mih mere selections from the beginning 

king," i.e., "beginnings and endings and conclusion of the original work, 
from the book of scriptural texts" 


sucli stories " may have been invented to suit the text of the 
Dhammapada rather than xice versa " (p. cvi. n.), and this 
appears to be very probable ; but yet the stories found in 
the work before us must have been well known in India 
prior to the middle of the third century A.D., and judging 
from the ordinary period occupied in the transmission of 
such tales, we may reasonably refer them to a date 
perhaps as early as Dharmatrata himself. The method 
adopted in this work is to give one or two tales, and a 
verse or more, as the Moral. The chapters are identical 
with the Ta-kheu-king — the only difference being that the 
verses or gathas are fewer — they are, in fact, only a selec- 
tion from the whole to meet the requirements of the story 
preceding them. This arrangement is in agreement with 
the original design of the work. Buddhaghosha, we are 
told, gives for each verse a parable to illustrate the mean- 
ing of the verse, and believed to have been uttered by 
Buddha in his intercourse with his disciples, or in preach- 
ing to the multitudes that came to hear him.i And so 
here we have a tale for each verse, delivered by Buddha 
for the benefit of his disciples, or others. As to the 
character of these stories, some of them are puerile and 
uninteresting. But if I mistake not, they are of a 
description not opposed to the character of the age to 
which they are assigned by the Chinese. 

The method of teaching by parables, it is plain, was 
customary in India during the first and second centuries 
B.C. The Jatakas, and the stories which occupy such a 
great part of the ordinary lives of Buddha (vid. Eomantic 
Legend, passim), are illustrations of this. We know also 
from sculptures that these stories were familiar in India, 
and were, in fact, the ordinary means for instructing the 
people, at a date somewhere about the second century B.C., 
if not earlier,^ so that I see no reason why the parables 
in this work, which was brought to China, in the first 

1 Max Miiller, Dh. ix. dated by General Cunningham from 

- The Sculptures at Bharahut are the time of Asoka, some 350 B.C. 


instance, about 220 a.d, should not "be the very ones 
attributed to Dharmatrata at least 70 B.C. I am sorry 
that I have not been able to trace any agreement 
between these stories and those given by Buddhaghosha. 
Mr. Fausboirs notes are mostly mere transcriptions in 
Pali, but yet enough may be gathered from these, even by 
one who is not a Pali scholar, to make it clear that the 
stories to which he refers are not the same as those I 
have translated ; the solution of this difficulty will have 
to be sought in the hint before alluded to, viz., that the 
parables were invented to suit the text of Dhammapada 
rather than vice versa (Max Miiller's Dh. cvi. n.). I shall 
leave any further observations on the Gathas which accom- 
pany the stories, for the notes that will be found in the 
book itself. 

The third version of Dhammapada known in China is 
entitled " Chuh-yau-king," which may signify the Sutra 
of " the Dawn," or " birth of Light." ^ This work is very 
much expanded, consisting, in fact, of seven volumes, 
comprising twenty kiouen or books. It is still referred to 


Arya Dharmatrata as its author ; its translator was Chu- 
fo-nien (or, Fo-nien (Buddhasmriti ? ) the Indian {Chu) 
who lived during the Yaou-Tsin period, about 410 A.D. 
In the preface to this version we are told that Dharmatrata 
was uncle of Yasumitra, and that he was the original com- 
piler of the stanzas and stories known as Fa-kheu-King 
(Dhammapada). It informs us, moreover, that the old 
term " pi-u," i.e., Avadanas, was the same as " the 
Dawn," and that these Avadanas composed the sixth of 
the twelve sections (augas) that made uj) the whole 

^ In the Encyclopgedia known as verses, I observe, are repeated iu 

Clii-yuen-fa-pao-kha'n-tuDg-tsung-liu each alternate section, as in a "re- 

Catalogue, Case xci.), this work is frain." The Colophon explains that 

also called " Chuh-yau-lun,'' Kiouen this work belongs to the class known 

9, fol. -j'. This book deserves atten- as "In-tou-cho-tsah," i.e., "Indian 

tion. It would well repay translation, Miscellanies,'" perhaps the Khuddaka- 

if the study of Chinese Buddhist nikdi/a f)f the South. 
books ever commands notice. The 


Buddhist Canon. The author of the Chinese Preface has 
mistaken Avadana (pi-u, i.e., comparison ; although, as 
Burnouf states, it is difficult to account for this explana- 
tion of the word. Int. Bud. 64) for Mdana ; for it is the 
Nidanas that compose the sixth of the twelve parts of the 
Buddhist Canon (angas), and as the word Nidanam is con- 
fessedly used to signify " the narrative of the circum- 
stances under which any sermon of Buddha was 
delivered " (Childers, Pali Diet, sub voce), it may be very 
well applied to the narratives or stories which explain 
the circumstances under which the stanzas composing 
Dhammapada were first delivered. The title, "The 
Dawn," or " Coming forth of Light," is a very usual and 
significant one to indicate the " origin " or " cause," and 
in this sense is a proper rendering of Mdana. The 
preface goes on to state that a Shaman Sanghbhadanga of 
Ki-pin (Cabul) came to Tchangan (Siganfu) about the 
nineteenth year of the period Kien-Yuen.l Having 
travelled back to India and returned with a copy of 
the present work, it was eventually translated by Fo- 
nien, with the assistance of others. Without, going 
through this voluminous work, we way observe that the 
wdiole of the first volume, comprising seventy-four double 
pages, is occupied with the subject " Impermanency," in 
which there are stories on stories, and verses on verses, 
most of which appear to be artificially made for one 
another ; the second subject is " Desire," which occupies 
twenty-one pages ; the third is " Lust," which occupies 
seventeen pages ; the fourth section, however, seems to 
throw some light on the difference occurring between the 
tenth chapter of the Chinese earlier versions and the 
second of the Pali ; in the first the subject is " Careless- 
ness," in the second it is " Keflection ; " now in the 
version we are considering the subject is restored to the 

1 So far as I can make out, this period Kien-Yuen only lasted two 
must have been about 345 a.d., years, 
although in the Eai-kwo-tu-chi the 


Pali form by the addition of a simple adjunct "Won;" 
instead of " Fong-min " (carelessness) as in the former 
copies, we have here " wou-fong-min/' i.e., "absence of 
Carelessness/' or "Eeflection," as in the Southern copy. 
This may perhaps show that the original used by Fo- 
nien was not altogether uncanonical. We may add that 
the whole number of chapters in this work is thirty-three, 
and that the last is, like the Pali, on "the Brahmana." 
There are ample commentaries attached to many of the 
verses, so that, after all, this work is of considerable value, 
and deserving of close examination. 

With respect to the last version of the Dhammapada in 
Chinese, I can only say that it is still assigned to Dhar- 
matrata as its author,^ — but there is no resemblance in it to 
the earlier translation. I shall not attempt, therefore, to 
institute any comparison between it and the Southern 
copy, agreement with which alone could make any notice 
of it in the present work interesting or useful. 

I have selected the second Chinese version for transla- 
tion in preference to the first, because of its completeness. 
If my object had been to institute a comparison between 
the Pali and Chinese copies of Dhammapada, the earlier 
version would doubtless have been the one to select for 
the purpose. But such is not the aim of the present book. 
Its purpose is to show the method adopted by the early 
Buddhist teachers and preachers who were mainly instru- 
mental in diffusinoj a knowledf:^e of this relisjion through 
the Eastern world. The simple method of Parable was the 
one used. Doubtless it was this method which, in the 
first place, contributed to the wide prevalence of the system, 
and has since enabled it to keep its hold on the minds of 
so many millions of people. And when we consider the 
peculiar simplicity of these tales, and the truth contained 

^ Vide Catalogue of the Chinese Sung dynasty (800 or 90x3 a.D.), a^d 
Tripitaka, CaseLXXVII., p. 95. The is, therefore, very corrupt, 
translation was made so late as the 


in tlie morals drawn from them, we do not wonder at the 
result ; nor can it be questioned that the influence of 
such teaching must have been beneficial to those affected 
by it. 

With res^ard to the critical uses to be made of the 
expressions herein contained, it will suffice to add that my 
own conviction expressed many years since respecting the 
primitive idea of Nirvana, that it was designed to denote 
a state of rest and peace, resulting from the absence of 
sorrow and the delusions of sense, is in this work com- 
pletely confirmed ; nor can I see anything in Mr. D' Alwis' 
remarks on the subject to weaken this conviction. How- 
ever, this contention is in the hands of other champions, 
well able from their knowledge of the matter and of the 
Pali languas^e, to conduct it to a fair issue, and with them 
I leave it. 

My hope is that some of our younger students (espe- 
cially those already grounded in Sanscrit) may be induced 
to take up the subject of " Buddhism in China." It is 
one which has abundant claims on the attention of the 
student of religion, but especially on the philanthropist 
and the missionary,! and it is my firm belief that com- 
paratively little will be done either in producing an intel- 
ligible version of the Christian Scriptures in countries 
where Buddhism prevails (especially China and Japan), or 
in placing the doctrines of the Christian religion fairly 
and clearly before the people of those countries, until 
Buddhism is studied by every missionary, and its termino- 
logy understood, as it ought to be, by those who con- 
stantly use the same terms, in a sense more or less diverse 
and sometimes directly opposite.^ 

The books now in England offer a large and open field 

1 There are some excellent remarks remarks respecting incorrect transla- 

regarding the duties of missionaries tions of religious phrases, by the late 

in their work amongst Buddhists, in Dr. Ballantyne, "Christianity con- 

the introduction to M. Wassilief's trasted with Hindu Philosophy," 

"Buddhism," by M. Ed. Laboulaye, Introduction, pp. viii., ix. 

pp. viii., xvi. Compare also some " The expression used by the Ro- 


for investigation, and the deliglit wliicli the study of 
works wholly unknown to the European world must 
naturally afford, ought to be a sufficient inducement to 
tempt those who have the leisure to engage in this pur- 
suit, and to prosecute it with determination. 

man Catholic missionaries for " God " aries in China, has some expression 

(tien chu), is the common term in or other which would convey to the 

Buddhist books for "Indra," or, as mind of the Buddhist, either a per- 

Ave should say, "Jupiter." Almost verted idea, or else one repugnant 

every page of the New Testament to his prejudices. Such expressions 

version used by Protestant mission- ought, therefore, to be explained. 

( 29 ) 


(Cod. I.) 

(Law-verses. Dhammapada.) 

\From the, Chinese.] 


The verses called Dhammapada (Tan-poh) are selections 
from all the Sutras. The expression Tan means law, and 
the word poh means verse or sentence. These are various 
editions (or arrangements) of this Dhammapada Sutra. 
There is one with 900 verses, another with 700, and 
another with 500. Now the word for verse, or Gatha, 
signifies an extract from the Scriptures arranged accord- 
ing to metre. These are the words of Buddha himself, 
spoken as occasion suggested, not at any one time, but at 
various times, and the cause and end of their being spoken 
is also related in the different Sutras. Now Buddha, the 
All- wise, moved by compassion for the world, was mani- 
fested in the world, to instruct men and lead them into 
the right way. What he said and taught has been in- 
cluded in twelve sorts of works. There are, however, 
other collections containing the choice portion of his doc- 
trine, such, for instance, as the four works known as the 
Agamas. After Buddha left the world, Ananda collected 
a certain number of volumes, in each of which the words 
of Buddha are quoted, whether the Sutra be large or small, 



with this introductory phrase, " Thus have I heard." The 
place where the sermon was preached is also given, and 
the occasion and circumstances of it. It was from these 
works that the Shamans, in after years, copied out the 
various Gathas, some of four lines, some of six lines, and 
attached to each set a title according to the subject therein 
explained. But all these verses, without exception, are 
taken from some one or other of the accepted Scriptures, 
and therefore they are called Law-verses (or Scripture 
extracts), because they are found in the Canon. 

ISTow the common edition used by people generally is 
the one with 700 Gathas. The meaning of these Gathas 
is sometimes very obscure (deep), and men say that there 
is no meaning at all in them. But let them consider that 
as it is difficult to meet with a teacher like Buddha, so 
the words of Buddha are naturally hard of explanation. 
Moreover, all the literature of this religion is written in 
the language of India, which widely differs from that of 
China — the language and the books, in fact, are those of 
the Devas (Heaven). So to translate them faithfully is 
not an easy task. 

The present work, the original of which consisted of 500 
verses, was brought from India in the third year of the 
reign of Hwang-wu (a.d. 223), by Wai-chi-lan, and, with 
the help of another Indian called Tsiang-im, was first ex- 
plained, and then translated into Chinese. On some objec- 
tion being made as to the inelegance of the phrases 
employed, Wai-chi-lan stated " that the words of Buddha 
are holy words, not merely elegant or tasteful, and that 
his Law is not designed to attract persons by its pleasing 
character, but by its deep and spiritual meaning." 

Finally, the work of translation was finished, and after- 
wards 13 additional sections added, making up the whole 
to 752 verses, 14,580 words, and headings of chapters, 


( 31 ) 




A SOtra (Cod. 2.) 





I. The first parable 1 in tliis section relates tliat Sakra 
having on one occasion been conceived in the household 
of a potter, as the offspring of the female ass that turned 
the mill, the ass, overjoyed at the prospect of progeny, 
kicked her heels up, and broke all the pitchers and pots 
which the master had made. On this the man, takin;:^ 
a stick, belaboured the beast to such a degree, that the 
newly-formed foetus was destroyed, and the prospect of 

1 This parable is the same in Cod. i. equipages of the youths of Yaisali, 
and ii. It differs in Cod. iii. In the who drove to the Vihara where Bud- 
last name, the scene of the story is at dha was (the Monkey-tank Vihara) 
Vaisali. The sermon was designed to in their variousl3'--adorned chariots, 
show the comparative worthlessness [But in Cod. iii. the verse occurs after 
of all earthly grandeur. The argu- the third story.] 
ment was derived from the gaudy 


offspring cut off. On whicli occasion Buddha repeated 
these lines — 

''Whatever exists^ {sanshdra) is without endur- 
ance. And hence the terms ^' flourishing " and 
*' decaying." 2 A man is born, and then he dies. 
Oh, the happiness of escaping from this condition ! 
For the life of men is but as the earthen vessels 
made in a potter's mill ; formed with such care, 
they are all destined to destruction." 

Sakra, having heard these verses, was enabled to enter 
on the first path of the Buddhist profession, and obtained 

2. On a certain occasion Buddha was residing in the 
country of Sravasti (Sewet). The Eaja Prasenajit had 
been celebrating the funeral obsequies of the queen-mother, 
aged more than ninety years. On his return, he came to 
the place where Buddha was and saluted him. On this 
the great teacher spake thus (after inquiring respecting 
the occasion of the visit) : " There are four things, Eaja ! 
which from the first till now have been the causes of con- 
stant anxiety and fear to men — the fear of old age, of 
disease, of death, and of grief consequent on death. Alas ! 
the life of man is but as the perishing things we see 
around us ; to-day they flourish, to-morrow they are gone. 
Just as the waters of the five rivers 3 are ever flowing on 
without cessation day and night, such is the case with 
man — his life is ever ebbing away." And then the Hon- 
oured of the world spoke these words and said — 

" As the waters of a river ever hasten on and 
flow away, and once gone, never return, such is 

1 Ch. liing. tas often the meaDing I have given it 

2 The Chinese fa, as is well known, in the text. 

2 Of the Panjah i 


the life of man. That which is gone knows not 
•any return." 

Buddha having further expounded this subject, the King 
and his attendants dismissed their grief, and, filled with 
joy, entered the " Paths." ^ 

3. On a certain occasion, when Buddha was dwelling in 
the Bamboo Garden near Rajagriha, he had been preach- 
ing in the city, and was returning homewards with his 
followers when he met a man driving a herd of fat and 
sleek cattle towards the gates of the town. On this the 
Honom^ed of the world took up the subject, and spake as 
follows : — 

" As a man with his staff in his hand^ o^oes alonsf 
tending and pasturing the cattle, so are old age and 
death, they also watch over the life that perishes ; 
and of all they watch over, there is not one, of what- 
ever class, man or woman, rich or poor, but in the 
end shall decay and disappear. Every day and 
night takes from the little space given to each one 
born ; there is the gradual decay of a few years and 
all is gone, as the waters of a pool are cut off (or 

Buddha having arrived at the grove, and having washed 
liis feet and arranged liis robes, sat down; on this occasion 
Ananda respectfully asked him to explain the verses he 
had just repeated, on which the Honoured of the world 
related that the master of the oxen he had just seen sent 
them forth day by day to pasture and feed, in order that 
when fattened and well conditioned they might be killed 

1 The "paths'' are the four stages 2 'j]jis verse seems to agree with 
in the progress towards complete No. 135 of the Pali. {Catena, j). 
emancipation. (Compare Max Miiller, 27.) 
Dhammapadc, cix., n.) 



one by one. "Such," he added, "is the fate of all that 
lives ; it is thus it flourishes for a moment and then dies." 
On this upwards of two hundred of the hearers obtained 
spiritual powers,^ and became Rahats." 

4. On one occasion when Buddha was residing at 
Sravasti, in the Garden of Anathapindada,^ a certain 
Brahmacharin,^ who had lost an only daughter, about 
fourteen or fifteen years of age, very beautiful and much 
beloved, being nearly deprived of reason through grief, 
having heard tidings of the wisdom of the holy one 
(Buddha), came to him where he was, and laid bare the 
cause of his unhappiness, on which the teacher took up 
his discourse, and said — 

" There are four things in the world, Brah- 
naacharin! which cannot permanently last, and what 
are the four ? Thinking we have obtained some- 
thins: that will last, it must needs be we find that 
it will not continue. Being rich, it must needs be 
poverty will come. Being united and agreed, 
there will be division and separation. Being 
strong and hale, yet there will come deatL" And 
then the Honoured of the world added these lines — 
" That which appears permanent will perish ; that 
which is high will be brought low ; where there is 
agreement, there will come division; and where 
there is birth, there will be death." 

1 ]\Iiraculous power, or, the power with those found in the south. (Corn- 
to work miracles. pare the Chinese copy of Mahdvastu, 

2 As is well known this person K. 6.) 

bought for Buddha a site near ^ The word " Brahmachirin" occur- 

Sravasti, on which the celebrated ring throughout this work corre- 

Jetavana Vihara was built. There sponds to the " Brahmana " of the 

are full accounts in the Chinese Southern version. 
Canon of his history, which agree 



On this the Brahmacharin received enlightenment, and 
having assumed the robes and tonsure of a Bhikshu, he 
quickly became a Kahat. 

5. Once when Buddha was residing in the Gridhrakuta 
Mountain, near Eajagriha, there was a certain famous 
courtezan in the city, called " Lien-hwa " (Pundari, or 
Padma) most beautiful in form, and incomparable for 
grace. This woman, wearied of her mode of life, resolved 
to join herself to Buddha and become a Bhikshuni. 
Accordingly she proceeded towards the place where he 
was, and having half ascended the mountain, she halted 
awhile at a fountain of water to drink ; whilst lifting the 
water to her mouth she saw her face reflected in the 
fountain, and she could not but observe her own incom- 
parable beauty, the delicacy of her complexion, her rosy 
hair, her graceful figure. On seeing herself thus she 
altered her mind, and said — " Shall one born so beautiful 
as I am go out of the world and become a recluse ? — no ! 
rather let me have my fill of pleasure and be satisfied " — 
on this she made ready to turn back and go home. But 
in the meantime Buddha, seeing the circumstance, and 
knowing that Pundari was in a condition to be saved 
(converted), transformed himself at once into a beautiful 
woman, infinitely more charming than Pundari. Meeting 
as they went, the courtezan was amazed at the beauty of 
the strange woman, and asked her, " Whence come you, 
fair one ? and where dwell your kindred ? and why do 
you travel thus alone without attendants ? " On which 
the stranger replied, " I am returning to yonder city, and 
though we be not acquainted, let us join company and go 
together." On this they went on their way till they came 
to a certain fountain on the road, where they sat down. 
At length, the conversation having ceased, the strange 
beauty, resting herself against the knees of Pundari, fell 
asleep. After a time the courtezan, looking down on her 
friend, was amazed to behold her form entirely changed; 


she had become loathsome as a corpse, her face pallid, her 
teeth gone, the hair fallen from her head, hateful insects 
feeding on her flesh. Frightened and aghast at the sight, 
Pundari hastened away from the spot, and as she ex- 
claimed " How transient is human beauty ! " she hurried 
back again in the direction of Buddha's dwelling-place, 
and having arrived, cast herself prostrate at his feet, and 
related to him what she had seen, on which Buddha 
addressed her thus — "There are four things, Pundari, 
which must ever cause sadness and disappointment. 
That one, however beautiful, must yet become old ; that 
one, however firmly established, must die ; that one bound 
in closest ties of relationship and affection, must yet be 
separated from those he loves; and that wealth, heaped 
up in ever such profusion, must yet be scattered and 
lost." And then the World-honoured added these lines, 
and said — 

" Old age brings with it loss of all bodily attrac- 
tion ; through decay and disease a man perishes ; 
his body bent, and his flesh withered, this is the 
end of life. What use is this body when it lies 
rottinor beside the flowinsfs of the Gano;es ? It is but 
the prison-house of disease, and of the pains of old 
age and death. To delight in pleasure, and to be 
greedy after self-indulgence, is but to increase the 
load of sin, forgetting the great change that must 
come, and the inconstancy of human life. With no 
son to depend upon, without father or brother ; 
Death pressing at the door — without a friend (rela- 
tion) to look to for aid." 

The courtezan having heard these words, was able to 
see that life is but as the flower, that there is nought 
permanent but Nirvana, and so she requested permission 


to become a Bhiksliiini, wMcli being readily granted, she 
assumed the robes and the tonsure, and soon became a 
Eahat, and all the rest who heard the words of Buddha 
were filled with inexpressible joy. 

6. In days of old when Buddha was dwelling in the 
Bamboo Garden near Piajagriha, preaching the Law, 
there was a certain Brahmacharin and his three brothers, 
who had obtained spiritual perception, and thereby knew 
that after seven days they would have to die. On which 
they said— «^" By our spiritual power we can overturn 
heaven and earth, touch the sun and moon, move moun- 
tains, and check the flowing torrent, but yet after all we 
cannot arrest death." Then one said, " I will seek out in. 
the depths of ocean this Demon of inconstancy and 
destroy him." Another said, " I will rend Mount Sumeru 
in twain, and enter there to seek this Demon of incon- 
stancy to destroy him." Another said, " I will mount 
into remotest space to seek the Demon of inconstancy and 
destroy him." Another said, " I will enter the bowels of 
the earth to seek him and destroy him." The King of the 
country having heard of these men, came to Buddha to 
inquire respecting the point, on which the Honoured of the 
world explained that there were four things which, whilst 
we are in the world {yin), cannot be escaped, ist. It is 
impossible to avoid birth in some form or other; 2d, 
Having been born it is impossible to escape old age ; 
3d, When old, it is impossible to escape infirmity and 
disease ; 4th, Under these circumstances, it is impossible 
to escape death — and then he added these verses and 
said — 

'' Neither in space, nor in tbe depths of ocean,^ 

1 This verse agrees with v. 128 of Dhammapada are; take, e.g., the 

the Southern version. It occurs in pada preceding the one just named 

God. iii. K. II. fol. f. I would here in Cod. iii. " Doing evil, you will go 

notice (by the way) how singularly to Hell. Doing good (or "prepar- 

curt and definite these verses of ing,'* or "practising" good), you will 



nor in tlie hidden fastness of the mountain, nor in 
any other place can death be escaped. It is by 
knowing this and reflecting upon it that the Bhik- 
shu is able to overthrow the army of Mara and 
obtain deliverance from birth and death." ^ 

go to Heaven. If you are able to 
persevere in the good path, then with- 
out any remnants (of sorrow) you 
will enter Nirvana." 

1 In Cod. iii. we have numerous 
verses under the heading of this 
chapter, among which I observe on 
fol. 9 and lo the stanza, numbered 
146 in the Southern copy. 

" What joy ? What laughter ? let 
us recollect the everlasting burnings ! 
Lost in deepest gloom, why seek ye 
not the Light?" [The "everlasting 

burnings " are explained in the Com- 
mentary as those resulting from 
sorrow and pain.] As a further in- 
stance of epigram in these verses, I 
would refer to Cod. iii. K. II. V"- 
" The Sun which shines to-day once 
set, so much less of life remains ! Ah ! 
what joy can there be in this con- 
dition, resembling the fish in ever- 
shallowing waters." [With respect 
to "burning," as the result of 
sin— consult v, 136, n. Max Miiller, 




I. This section consisting of twenty-nine verses,^ is de- 
signed to excite listless mendicants to renewed exertion 
in the path of Duty. The first four gathas were spoken by 
Buddha in the Jetavana at Sravasti. On this occasion a 
careless disciple had left the company of his hearers^ 
whilst he was preaching on the necessity of exertion in 
casting off the hindrances and trammels tliat prevent 
advance in a religious life. Having retired to the interior 
of his cell, he indulged himself in sleep and effeminacy 
— not knowing that after seven days he would die. 
Whereupon Buddha addressed him thus : 

" Alas ! arise thou ! ^ why sleeping there ? a com- 
panion of the spider, and the creeping insect. 
Hidden from sight, practising impm^ity, miserably- 
deceived with regard to the character of the body (or 
Life), even as one who dreads the amputation of a 
diseased limb, his heart heavy, and his affliction 
great, seeks forgetfulness in sleep, but neverthe- 
less cannot escape the recollection of bis coming 
calamity — such is your case. But the man who 
strives after true wisdom,* feels no such sorrow, 
always reflecting on religion, he forgets himself — 

1 Chinese " kian hioh." We ob- - That is in Cod. ii. 

serve that in Cod. iii. the title of this ^ There is some similarity here with 

second chapter is "Desire" or "Lust" § i68 and the Southern copy. 

(Tanha), and its verses agree with 212, "* Literally "understands the char- 

ss. of the Pali. acter (outline) of virtue." 


2:)0ssessed of right apprehension of Truth he in- 
creases in wisdom daily, he becomes a light in the 
world ; however born,^ his happiness is a thousand 
fold greater, and in the end he shall escape every 
evil mode of existence." 

Hearing these verses the mendicant arose and came 
before Buddha, and prostrated himself in his presence ; on 
which the World-honoured asked him if he knew his former 
states of existence ; the mendicant confessed that owing to 
the indulgence of his carnal desires, he was unable to 
penetrate such mysteries — on which the teacher explained 
how in the time of a former Buddha he had been a dis- 
ciple, but had given way to self-indulgence and sleep — on 
account of which he had been born for manv thousand 
years, as an insect, and in other similar forms — but now 
his evil Karma exhausted, he had a^^ain been born as a 
man and become a mendicant. On hearing this the 
Shaman, struck with remorse, repented of his sin and 
became a Eahat. 

2. Formerly, when Buddha was residing at Sravasti, in 
the Jetavana, whilst preaching for the benefit of the four 
orders of his followers, there was a young Bhikshu, who 
being overcome by foolish thoughts, was unable to restrain 
his desires. Grieved at this, he resolved to dismember 
himself, and for that purpose he went to the house of his 
Patron (danapati), and having procured a knife he pro- 
ceeded to his cell, and sitting on his couch he began to 
reflect on the evil which resulted from the power of 
gratifying desire. Buddha knowing his thoughts, and 
perceiving him to be deceived by ignorance of the true 
cause of his conduct, an ill-restrained mind, proceeded to 
his cell, and inquired what he was going to do. On this 
the Bhikshu explained that as he was unable to check 

1 Or, " whatever is born, its happiness is a thousandfold greater," i.e., iu 
consequence of his virtue. - 


desire, and in consequence to advance in religions exercise, 
he was about to dismember himself. On this Buddha 
explained that uncertainty and doubt were the causes of 
delay in religious progress, that the first thing to do was 
to govern the mind, and restrain the thoughts, without 
which merely to get rid of the external instrument of evil 
was useless, and then he added these lines — 

*' Learning first to cut ofip the Mother, and to 
follow the one true guide (Minister), dismissing all 
the subordinate place-holders, this is (the conduct 
of) the truly enlightened man." 

And then explaining that " Doubt " was the Mother, 
and the twelve causes and effects " l the subordinates, 
whilst Wisdom was the one Minister, the Bhikshu obtained 
enlightenment, and was at rest. 

3. Formerly, when Buddha was residing in the Gridhra- 
kuta Mountain near Bajagriha preaching the Law of Eternal 
Life {i.e., Nirvana) to the assembled multitudes, there was 
a certain obdurate and hardened Bhikshu present, on whom 
the words of the Preacher had no effect. On this Buddha, 
knowing his thoughts, sent him to the back of the moun- 
tains to meditate beneath a tree in the middle of the 
gorge, known as that of the " Evil Spirits " — with a view 
to his casting away the impediments that prevented him 
from attaining Nirvana. Arrived at the spot he was 
constantly alarmed and interrupted by the sounds of the 
evil spirits, though he saw no form, and so instead of 
arriving at a fixed state of composure, he rather desired to 
go back to the place whence he came — but on reflecting 
that the sounds he heard were only those of evil spirits 
who wished to drive him from his purpose, he stayed where 
he was. Then Buddha coming near him as he sat, took 
his place beside him and said — " Have you no fear dwell- 
ing alone in this solitary place ? " to which he replied — " At 



first when I had scarcely yet entered on this part of the 
Mountain, I was for a moment filled with fear — but then 
a wild elephant coming to the place were I was, and lying 
down close to me under a Tree, went to sleep, as though 
he were perfectly rejoiced to get away from the rest 
of the herd, and be at peace (and so I was re-assured)." 
Then Buddha, knowing perfectly the circumstances of the 
case, said, " That elephant was but one of a herd of five 
hundred, who from fear that he might be captured with 
the rest, found his joy in separation, and a solitary life — 
how much more, then, should you seek for happiness in 
leaving your home, and practising in solitude the rules of 
an ascetic life ?" and then he added these verses — 

^' Perceiving that the ignorant herd can never 
attain true Wisdom/ the wise man prefers in soli- 
tude to guard himself in virtuous conduct, not asso- 
ciating with the foolish ; rejoicing in the practice 
of moral duties [sild)^ and pursuing such conduct as 
becomes this mode of life, there is no need of a 
companion or associate in such practice — solitary 
in virtue, without sorrow, a man rejoices as the 
wild elephant (escaped from the herd)." 

On hearing these words the Bhikshu obtained rest, and 
the " Evil Spirits " also, who listened and understood them, 
were so awed that they vowed never again to molest soli- 
tary ascetics, and then Buddha and the mendicant returned 
to their place. 

4. On a certain occasion when Buddha was residino; in the 
Jetavana at Sravasti, preaching for the good of Devas and 
men, two new disciples from Eajagriha desired to go to 
the place where he was to see him. Between the two 
countries there was an uninhabited and inhospitable desert. 
Parched with the heat and utterly exhausted, they came 

1 The expression " Shen yau" is used in a Buddhist sense for " Bodhi." 


at length to a pool of water and sat down, eagerly desiring 
to slake their thirst. But they perceived that the water 
was full of insects, and so hesitated to drink. At length 
one said, " If I drink not I shall not be able to see Buddha, 
the end justifies the means," and so he drank of the water. 
The other, considering that the Law of Buddha was one 
of universal love, which forbade the taking of life, refused 
to drink, and as the other went on his way alone, the latter 
died and was born in Heaven. Then considering the cir- 
cumstances of his former life, he quickly descended and 
came to the place where Buddha was and saluted him. 
In a short time the first also arrived at the place, and on 
Buddha asking him whence he came and where his com- 
panion was, he related with tears aU the circumstances of 
the case, on which the Teacher, pointing to the bright Deva 
come down from Heaven, assured the other that this was 
his former companion ; he had kept the Law and was born 
in Heaven, and was the first to behold the form of Buddha; 
but you " who say you see me, and yet have transgressed 
my Law, are not seen by me, but are as though you were 
distant ten thousand li, whereas this man who has kept 
the Law, dwells ever in my sight," and the World-honoured 
one added these lines, and said — 

"" The obedient disciple who follows the pre- 
cepts without fail, in either world (Heaven or earth) 
exalted, he shall obtain his desire and aim (his 
prayer). But, on the other hand, the disciple who 
is stint in obedience, not keeping the precepts in 
their strictness, in either world grievously afflicted, 
mourns for his former vows (unaccomplished). Yet 
both,-^ if they persevere in their inquiries and search, 
shall be saved from error, although with difficulty." 

On hearing these words the disciple who had erred was 
overjoyed, and arrived at enlightenment. 

1 It is possible the expression may refer to the second only. 

( 44 ) 



I. Once on a time in Sravasti there was a certain housewife, 
poor though she was, who had no religious principle, and 
was without faith. Buddha seeing her condition was 
moved with pity. He saw that, whenever his followers 
went begging through the city, they met with nothing 
but abuse at the door of this woman's house. On a Shaman 
expostulating with her, on the ground that he only sought 
alms as a religious duty, she said," If you were dying I would 
give you nothing, much less now that you are hale and 
well." On this the Shaman, standing before her, assumed 
the condition of one who was really dead. The various 
functions of his body ceased, and from his mouth and 
nose crept in and out the hateful insects that accompany 
death. On seeing this ghastly sight, the woman fell down 
in a swoon, and so remained. Meanwhile the Shaman, by his 
spiritual power, transported himself thence a few lis, and, 
sitting beneath a tree, composed himself to contemplation. 
Meantime the husband of the woman returning, and finding 
his wife in the condition related, inquired the reason of 
it, on which she replied that she had been frightened by a 
rascally Shaman. On this the husband in a rage seized 
his bow and his sword, and set out to pursue and avenge 
himself on the mendicant. Coming to where he was, the 
Shaman, by his spiritual power, surrounded himself with a 
wall, through which there were gates of approach, but all 
were closed. The incensed husband, being unable to get 
^t the mendicant, asked him to open the gates ; on which 
he replied, " Lay aside your bow and your sword and you 


may enter." On this the man thought, " Even if I leave 
my weapons behind me I shall be able to maul him with 
my fists." On this he put down his bow and sword, 
and asked again for admission. But the Shaman said, 
" The gate cannot be opened, for the bow and the sword 
which you must lay aside are not those weapons you car- 
ried in your hand, but the enmity and malice that fill your 
heart ; lay these aside and you may enter." On this the 
man, struck with the conviction of his sin, both he and his 
wife repented of their evil designs and became disciples — 
on which occasion the enlightened follower of Buddha (man 
of Bodhi, or reKgious man) added these words, and said — 

" The disciple (Sravaka) who is able to hold (the 
precepts) firmly, like a wall, difficult to be over- 
turned, surrounds himself with the protection of the 
Law, and thus persevering perfects himself in saving 
wisdom. The disciple, with his mind enlightened, 
by this enlightenment adds yet to his store of wis- 
dom, and so obtains perfect insight into the mysteries 
of Eeligion (Truth), and thus illumined, he practises 
the duties of his calling in peace. The disciple, able 
to cast away (the causes of) sorrow, in perfect rest 
enjoys happiness, and by virtuously preaching the 
Law of Eternal Life, himself obtains Nirvana. By 
hearing, he acquaints himself with the Kules of a 
Holy Life ; he shakes off doubt and becomes settled 
in faith. By hearing, he is able to resist all that 
is contrary to the Law (Truth, or Eeligion), and so 
advancing, he arrives at the place where there is 
no more Death." 

On hearing these words the man and his wife, beholding 
the wonderful signs of Buddha displayed in the person of 
this disciple, smote on their breasts in penitence, and 


countless thousands, like themselves, throughout the world, 
were converted and saved. 

2. In old time, when Buddha was residing in the country 
of Kausambi, in a certain Yihara called Mei-yin (beautiful 
voice), and preaching for the sake of the four orders, there 
was a certain Brahmacharin, unrivalled for knowledge of 
Scripture, who being unable to find any one equal to him- 
self in argument, was accustomed to carry, wherever he 
went, a lighted Torch in his hand. One day a man in the 
market-place of a certain town, seeing him thus, asked 
him the reason of his strange conduct, on which he replied 
— " The world is so dark, and men so deluded, that I carry 
this Torch to light it up so far as I can." l At this time 
Buddha transformed himself into a man of eminence 
(magistrate), who, sitting on his chair of office in the 
market-place, forthwith called out to the Brahmacharin, 
" What ho there! what are you about (with that Torch) ?" 
To whom the Brahmacharin replied, " All men are so 
wrapped in ignorance and gloom, that I carry this Torch to 
illumine them." Then the magistrate asked him again, "And 
are you so learned as to be acquainted with the four treatises 
(vidyas) which occur in the midst of the Sacred Books, to 
wit, the treatise on Literature (Sabdavidya) ; the treatise on 
the " Heavenly Bodies and their Paths ; " the treatise on 
" Government ; " and the treatise on " Military Art " ? On 
the Brahmacharin being forced to confess he was unac- 
quainted with these things, he flung away his Torch, and 
Buddha appearing in liis glorious body, added these words — 

" If any man, whether he be learned or not, con- 
sider himself so great as to despise other men, he is 
like a blind man holding a candle — blind himself, 
he illumines others." 

On hearing these words the Brahmacharin sought to be- 
come a disciple of Buddha, and was accordingly admitted. 

1 This recalls the story of Diogenes and his lantern. 


3. There was in former days a certain nobleman, called 
Su-ta (Sudatta ?), residing at Sravasti, who had become a 
disciple of Buddha, and entered on the first path. He had 
a friend called " Hau-shi " (Sudana ?), who was not a be- 
liever. On this latter falling sick, and finding no help in 
any one for whose advice he sent, his friend Sudatta 
resolved to send for Buddha, and ask him to visit his 
friend. In compliance with the request Buddha came, and, 
with his body glorious as the sun, entered the house of 
Sudana, and sat down. [He then preached a sermon on 
the moral diseases to which men are liable, and afterwards 
added these lines] : 

*' The office of the Sun is to give light ; the office 
of a Father, to be kind, and compassionate ; the office 
of a Kuler is to restrain and govern ; the office of a 
Man of Reason (religious man) is to listen to in- 
struction ; a physician concerns himself with pro- 
longing the life of men ; a warrior desires victory ; 
and so Religion (the Law) resides in the possession 
of wisdom. A happy walk through life is the glad- 
ness of the world ; a friend is for consultation ; the 
choice of a companion is for the occasion which 
requires him ; to behold the beauty of women is 
the joy of the chamber ; the proof of wisdom is in 
speakiug ; to be a Ruler one must be able to dis- 
criminate rightly ; to dispel doubt and error, one 
must exercise the light of supreme wisdom (Bodlii) ; 
to search out the foundation of rest and quiet, one 
must be able faithfully to hold (observe) the 
Treasures of the Law (the Scriptures). He who 
hears is able to be of advantage to the present 
world, his wife, children, and friends, and in the 
next world to arrive at perfect happiness. Still 


hearing, lie arrives at the perfection of sacred know- 
ledge, and is able to discriminate and explain the 
secrets of Truth ; and thus he governs himself with- 
out transgression ; receiving the Law, he extols that 
which is right, and so obtains release from all 
(moral) disease, he dissipates all the causes of sorrow 
and pain, he excludes all possibility of misfortune 
or calamity, he is always successful in finding a 
ground for peace and comfort : such are the conse- 
quences following in the life of one who ' hears 
much' (the Sravaka)." 

On hearing this sermon, the sick man was convinced of 
the Truth and became a disciple. 

4. In times gone by, there was to the south of Rajagriha a 
great mountain, distant from the city about 200 li. Through 
this mountain there was a pass deep and lonely, through 
which the road to South India lay. Five hundred robbers 
had taken up their abode in this defile, who used to murder 
and spoil all travellers that passed that way. TJie king 
had vainly sent to capture them, but they always escaped. 
Buddha, residing in the neighbourhood, and considering 
the case of these men, that they understood not the nature 
of their conduct, and that although he had come into the 
world to teach men, yet their eyes had not seen him, nor 
their ears heard the tidings of his Law, he resolved to go 
to them. Consequently he transformed himself into a man 
richly dight, on a well-caparisoned steed, with his sword 
and bow, with bags of silver and- gold on his saddle-bow, 
and precious stones studding his horse's bravery. 

On entering^ the defile loud neic^hed his steed. On 
hearing the sound the 500 robbers started up, and spying 
the traveller, exclaimed, " Never have we had such prospect 
of booty ; let us up, and capture him 1 " So they proceeded 
to surround the traveller, with a view to prevent his escape ; 


but lie, with one sliot of liis bow, pierced the 500, and with 
one stroke of his sword wounded them. 

On their falling to the ground, they exclaimed, " What 
God is this ? Oh that he would draw out these arrow?, and 
assuage the bitter pain of such wounds as ours ! " On this 
the traveller began to explain that such hurts as these 
were trivial compared with the pain caused by the sorrow 
that rules the world, and the wounds of unbelief and doubt, 
and that nouojht but the wisdom resultinor from earnest 
attention (hearing) to the Scriptures could heal such 
wounds ; and then he added these words and said : 

'* There is no painful wound so bad as sorrow — 
no piercing arrow so sharp as folly. Nothing can 
remedy these but an earnest attention to religious 
instruction. From this the blind receive sight, the 
deluded are enlightened. Men are guided and led 
by this, as eyes given to him without eyes. This, 
then, is able to dis23el unbelief, to remove sorrow, 
to impart joy ; the highest wisdom is the lot of 
those who 'hear.' This is the title of him who has 
acquired the greatest merit (most to be revered)." 

On hearing this the robbers repented of their evil lives, 
and the arrows, of themselves, left their bodies, and their 
wounds were healed. They then became disci|)les, and 
obtained rest and peace. 

( 50 ) 



I. In the days of old, to the south-east of Sravasti, there 
was a great Eiver, very deep and wide, on the banks of 
which there was a hamlet, consisting of some 500 houses, 
the inhabitants of which had not yet heard the news of 
Salvation, and were consequently immersed entirely in 
worldliness and selfish pursuits. 

The Honoured of the world, ever thinking on the salva- 
tion of men, resolved to go to this village and preach to 
the people. Accordingly, he came to the river-side, and 
sat down beneath a tree. The village people, seeing the 
glory of his appearance, approached with reverence to 
worship him. After they had so done, Buddha began to 
preach to them, but they believed him not. On this 
Buddha caused the appearance of a man coming from the 
south side of the river, where the water was very deep and 
the current strong, walking on the surface of it ; and so 
coming, he approached Buddha, and, bowing down, wor- 
shipped him. 

All the people, seeing this appearance, asked the man in 
astonishment, whence he had come, " for we never in all 
our lives have seen such a sight as this, a man walking on 
the surface of the water. Tell us, then, by what artifice 
has this been done, and how it was you were not engulphed 
in the stream." On which the man replied : " I reside on 
the southern bank of the river, and had ever lived in 
ignorance and folly till I heard that Buddha was here 
teaching the way of deliverance, on which, coming to the 
bank of the river, and not having time to wait to be carried 


over, I asked the men if it was deep, and whether I could 
not cross over without a boat. On which they said, ' Oh 
yes ! you can cross without fear.' On this I walked over, 
because I believed. Simply this and nothing more enabled 
me to do so." On this Buddha said : " It is well spoken — 
well spoken. Faith like yours alone can save the world 
from the yawning gulf of continual birth and death ; such 
faith alone can enable them to walk across dryshod (to the 
other shore)," and then he added these lines : 

"Faith can cross the flood, even as the master 
of the ship (steers his bark across the sea) ; ever ad- 
vancing in the conquest of sorrow, wisdom lands us 
on yonder shore. The wise man who lives by faith, 
in virtue of his holy life, enjoys unselfish 1 bliss, 
and casts off all shackles. Faith lays hold of true 
wisdom (or finds the path) ; Keligion leads to de- 
liverance from death ; from hearing comes know- 
ledge, which brings with it enlightenment; faith, 
wdth obedience (moral conduct), is the path of wis- 
dom : firmly persevering in this, a man finds escape 
from pain, and is thus able to pass over and escape 
the gulf of destruction." 

Hearing these words, these villagers were filled with 
joy, and embracing the five rules, were enabled to beheve 
on Buddha. 

2. When Buddha was hving in the world there was a 
certain nobleman called Su-lo-to (Sraddha ?), of great 
wealth, who from a principle of faith had resolved to 
entertain Buddha and his disciples on the eighth day of 
every month in Lent (^.e., the months of rain) ; but on 
these occasions none of his sons or grandsons ever made 
their appearance, being engrossed in other matters. At 

^ Wou-wei. 

52 DHAMMAPADA. ' • ' 

length the nobleman died, and as none of the children 
cared about entertaining Buddha, a servant boy called 
Pi-lo-to (Vraddah ?) resolved to do so. Consequently, 
having borrowed 500 pieces of money, he proceeded to 
invite the Master and his 1200 disciples to his house. 
After the entertainment and the departure of the guests, 
he went to rest ; when lo ! on waking the next morning, 
he found his house full of silver and gold and all precious 

On going to Buddha, the Master explained that this was 
the result of his faith, and then added these lines : 

" Faith is wealth ! Obedience is wealth ! Mo- 
desty also is wealth ! Hearing is wealth, and so is 
Charity ! Wisdom is sevenfold riches. Walking 
by Faith/ ever pure, a man perceives the Truth 
(the Law). Wisdom is as sandals on the feet to 
him who walks. To receive with respect instruc- 
tion, and not forget it, this, whoever he be, and 
however born, is wealth : no question is asked 
whether he be male or female, it is this alone that 
will bring gain at the last. Whosoever is wise will 
understand these truths." 

Having heard these words, Pi-lo-to was enabled to be- 
lieve, and became a disciple ; and so his wife also, and his 

^ Literally " From a motive of Faith guarding (or keeping) the Precepts." 

( 53 ) 



I. About forty or fifty li to the south of Benares there 
was formerly a mountain in which five Shamans dwelt, 
practising religious discipline. Every morning they used 
to leave their abode and go a-begging for their food, and 
then return to the mountain, sometimes, however, not till 
late in the evening, after which they gave themselves up 
to strict meditation. And yet, though years had passed 
by, they had not attained to Reason (Bodhi). Buddha, 
pitying their condition, transformed himself into a religious 
man, and going to their abode, asked them, saying. Have 
you attained the object of your religious exercises or not ? 
And then the ascetics explained that, although they had 
strictly adhered to the rules of their profession, and daily 
practised self-denial and meditation, yet they had failed 
to arrive at the end, i.e., true peace and rest. On this, the 
strans^er desired them to remain in their abode on the 
morrow, and let him bring them their food, and so rest 
themselves awhile ; and so for several successive days he 
supplied their wants, whilst they were on their part filled 
with satisfaction, and enabled to rise above the mere for- 
mal attention to duty ; and then the stranger added these 
lines, and said : 

"The Bhikslm, who adheres to the strict rules 
of a religious life, who guards and controls all his 
senses, takes his food in moderation, sleeps accord- 
ing to necessity, by these rules subduing his mind, 


keeping his tliouglits in close subjection,i inwardly 
enlightened by wisdom and meditation, never for- 
saking the right path (path of Bodhi) : thus in- 
wardly illumined, observing the rules of right con- 
duct, satisfied as to the character of true wisdom, 
proceeding onward in the path of daily duty, this 
man, at rest in himself, shall get rid of all sorrow." 

The stranger having thus spoken, lo ! the glorious body 
of Buddha shone forth, and the five men were converted, 
and obtained the condition of Eahats. 

^ Chi-kwan. 

( 55 ) 



I. In olden time, when Buddha was in the world, a certain 
Eaja called Fo-kia-sha^ was a friend of Bimbisara Raja; 
the first, liowever, was not a believer in Buddha, as 
Bimbisara was. On a certain occasion Vaksha had sent 
seven precious umbrellas (chattas) to his friend Bim- 
bisara, On receiving them, the latter offered them to 
Buddha, and said, " My friend, Vaksha Ptaja, has presented 
me with these precious umbrellas! Pray permit me to 
offer them to you, with the intention that his heart may be 
convinced and his eyes opened to behold Buddha, and he 
be thus led to receive your doctrine, and reverence the 
Holy Assembly as his reward." Then Buddha replied : 
"Bimbasara Ptaja, cause to be written the Sutra of the 
twelve Nidanas, and present the book to that king in 
return for the seven precious umbrellas ; and his heart 
will be enlightened (or, receive deliverance wrought by 
Paith)." [Accordingly Bimbisara did so, and his friend, 
in consequence, was convinced and became a disciple ; 
and finally gave up the kingdom to his son. Having 
failed to obtain an interview with Buddha, although he 
had frequently met him in begging through the streets of 
Eajagriha, the Teacher at length caused the appearance of 
a Shaman to meet the king, and explain to him that by 
reflection on the work in his possession he might truly 
behold Buddha ; and to this he added these words] : — 

" The man who takes refuge in Buddha, this is 

1 (Vaksha?). 


the man who obtains real advantage. Night and 
day, therefore, he ought ever to reflect on Buddha, 
the Law and the Church. Being thus truly enlight- 
ened, this man is a disciple of Buddha. Thus 
reflecting continually on the three Treasures, and 
on impermanency, and his own body,^ reflecting on 
moral duty, on charity, on the emptiness of all 
things around him, and their unreality (without 
marks), these are subjects for consideration." 

[On hearing these words Yaksha entered on the third 
path, and obtained rest.] 

^ Or, on himself. 

( 57 ) 



1. In old times, Buddha was residing in a country about 
500 li from Eajagriha, full of mountains. In these moun- 
tains there lived a certain clan of about 122 persons, who 
occupied themselves in hunting, and fed themselves on the 
flesh of the animals they killed. [Buddha goes to the place 
and converts the women, who were left alone during the 
day, whilst their husbands were hunting, and then adds 
tliese lines] : 

*' He who is humane does not kill (or, it is humane 
not to kill) ; he is ever able to preserve (his own ?) 
life. This principle (chu) is imperishable ; whoever 
observes it, no calamity shall betide that man. 
Politeness, indifference to worldly things, hurting 
no one, without place for annoyance — this is the 
character of the Brahma Heaven (or of Brahma 
Deva). Ever exercising love towards the infirm ; 
pure, according to the teaching of Buddha ; know- 
ing when sufiicient has been had ; knowing when 
to stop, — this is to escape (the recurrence of) Birth 
and Death." 1 

[The women, having heard these words, were converted, 
and on the men's return, although they wished at first to 
kill Buddha, they were restrained by their wives ; and, 

1 These Gathas are very obscure. 


listening to his words of love, they also were converted]. 
And then he added these lines : 

" Tliere are eleven advantages whicli attend the 
man who practises mercifulness, and is tender to 
all that lives ; his body is always in health (happy) ; 
he is blessed with peaceful sleep, and when engaged 
in study he is also composed ; he has no evil dreams, 
he is protected by Heaven (Devas), and loved by 
men ; he is unmolested by poisonous things, and 
escapes the violence of war ; he is unharmed by fire 
or water ; he is successful wherever he lives, and 
when dead goes to the heaven of Brahma. These 
are the eleven.'' 

Having uttered these words, both men and women were 
admitted into the company of his disciples, and obtained 

2. There was, in times gone by, a certain mighty king, 
called Ho-meh (love-darTiness), who ruled in a certain dis- 
trict where no tidings of Buddha or his merciful doctrine had 
yet been heard ; but the religious practices were the usual 
ones of sacrifice and prayer to the gods for protection. 
ISTow it happened that the king's mother being sick, the 
physicians having vainly tried their medicines, all the 
wise men were called to consult as to the best means of 
restoring her to health. After several years, during which 
she did not improve, the Queen mother sent for 200 
celebrated Brahmans, and desired them to exercise their 
supernatural arts in discovering from the sun, moon, and 
stars a way of recovery. These Brahmans rephed : " It is 
useless so to do, as the heavenly signs are in opposition 
and not favourable." On the King asking them what 
should be done, they replied, " Outside the city there 
should be selected a convenient place, level and plane. 


and without pollution, and sacrifices of a hundred beasts 
of different kinds sliould be offered on the four hills (or to 
the four quarters), the sun, moon, and stars, with a young 
child as a crowning oblation to Heaven. Then the Kiug 
in his own person, with his mother, going to this place to 
participate in the sacrifice, the stars and heavenly bodies 
may be propitiated.i [On this Buddha, moved with com- 
passion, came to the spot, and preached a sermon on " Love 
to all that lives," and added these words] : 

" If a man lives a hundred years, and engages the 
whole of his time and attention in religious offerings 
to the gods, sacrificing elephants and horses, and 
other things, all this is not equal to one act of pure 
love in saving life." 

[In consequence of this sermon and the exhibition of the 
glorious body of Buddha, they were converted, and became 

^ Here follows a description of the ern Gate towards the place of sacri- 

King ordering a hundred head of ele- fice, and how their piteous cries rang 

phants, hoi'ses, oxen, sheep, to be through (shook) heaven and earth, 
driven along the road from the East- 

( 6o ) 


ON AYORDS (conversation). 

I. In former days, wlien Fo-kia-sha^ (Vakslia?) raja was 
entering the city of Eajagriha to beg his food from door to 
door, in the city gate there was a cow, just delivered of its 
calf, which had turned round and gored its master to death. 
The cow having been sold' to a passer-by, he put a rope 
round its horns, and desired to lead it onwards ; but the 
cow, making an attack in the rear, killed this man also ; 
then the son, in a rage, killed the animal, and cutting it 
up, exposed it for sale in the market-place. JSTow a certain 
person passing by, bought the head of the creature, and 
carrying it away with him, as he sat down to rest, fastened 
it on the bough of the tree 'neath which he reposed ; all 
at once, the rope giving way, the head fell down, and the 
horn, piercing the skull of the man underneath, killed him 
also. Bimbisara Eaja, hearing of this strange occurrence, 
how that a cow killed three men in one day, came to 
Buddha to inquire of him the antecedent causes of this 
event, on which Buddha related the following history : — 
" In former days there were three merchants who, com- 
ing to a certain city to transact business, took up their 
abode in the house of a friendless old woman, and there 
lodged. Being dissatisfied with their quarters, the three 
men left the house without payment, and on the old woman 
searching for them and finding them, they abused her 
roundly, on w^hich she uttered this vow : ' May I be born 
in after years in such a condition as to kill you all three.' 

1 This may possibly refer to a "low-born king " (Pukkasa) vide supra, p. 49. 


Now," Buddha added, " these three men killed by the cow 
were these three merchants, and the cow itself was the old 
woman," and then he uttered these verses : 

" From evil and abusive words and an overbear- 
ing, insulting disposition towards others, hatred and 
resentment increase and grow. Kestraining one's 
words, and behaving decorously to men, using 
patience and courtesy, these evil consequences are 
self-destroyed. The future life of a man depends 
on his words, and therefore from evil words comes 
self-destruction . "^ 

[On hearing these words Brimbasara was filled with joy, 
and he and his followers departed.] 

1 Or, "a tortured existence (body)." 

( 62 ) 



I. FoKMERLY when Buddha was residing at Sravasti, the 
king of the country, whose name was Prasenajit, came to 
the place where Buddha was, and descending from his 
chariot, approached the Teacher with the deepest reverence, 
and invited him on the morrow to enter the city and par- 
take of his hospitality, with a view to exhibit to the people 
the excellency of his person and doctrine, that they might 
believe on him.2 

Buddha having consented, on the morrow entered the 
city with all his disciples, and having passed through the 
four cross streets of the town, he came to the place appointed 
and sat down. After finishing the meal, he began, on the 
request of the king, to preach in the midst of the four 
highways,^ whilst his auditors were very many. At this 
time there were two merchants listening to him. - One of 
them reflected, " What excellent wisdom on the part of the 
king to have such doctrines as these publicly preached ! 
how wide their application, how searching their character ! " 

The other reflected thus, " What folly is this on the part 
of the king, bringing this man here to preach ! Like the 
calf that follows the cow, here and there, fastened to a 
vehicle she draws, bleating as it goes — so is this Buddha 

1 Here we come into agreement - A similar story is told in the 
with the division of chapters in the Chu'h Yau, Cod. iii. book 19, fol. 6. 
Pali. This chapter is called " Yam a- ^ This preaching and begging in the 
kavaggo," i.e., "double verses." It "four highways" is constantly re- 
agrees in title with K. xviii. Cod. iii. ferred to in Buddhist works. 


following the king." The two merchants having departed 
from the city some thirty li, came to an inn where they 
put up. In taking some wine the good merchant was 
restrained and protected by the four guardian spirits that 
watch over the world. The other, on the contrary, was 
incited by an evil spirit to drink on, till he was over- 
powered by sleep, and lay down in the road near the inn. 
Early in the morning, the merchants' waggons leaving the 
place, the drivers not perceiving the man lying in the road, 
he was crushed to death by the waggon wheels. 

[The other merchant, having come to a distant country, 
was selected by the genuflection of a sacred horse ^ to 
succeed the king; and he accordingly was appointed to 
the throne. After this, considering the strange turn events 
had taken, he returned and invited Buddha to visit him, 
and preach to his people — on which occasion the World- 
honoured one declared the reason of the death of the evil- 
minded merchant, and the prosperity of him who thought 
wisely, and then added these lines] : 

'' The mind is the origin of all that is ; " the mind 
is the master, the mind is the canse.^ If in the 
midst of the mind* there are evil thoughts, then 
the words are evil, the deeds are evil, and the sorrow 
which results from sin follows that man, as the 
chariot wheel follows him (or it) who draws it. 

^ This reference to a "sacred horse " seems to agree with the Pali " mano- 

is curious. It seems to show some mayo," " sprmging from the mind " 

connection of Buddhism with Sun- (Ch. sub. voc), whilst the Chinese 

worship. "tsun" corresponds with "set^ho" 

2 In the Chu'h Yau (Cod. iii.) this (best, excellent, &;c.) 

verse occurs under the heading of ^ The Chinese " chung sin," al- -r 

"Thought," K. xix. fol. f. though irregular, seems to be a close «r 

3 This translation differs from the version of the P41i "manasa." The 
Pali. All the Chinese versions, how- question arises whether in these trans- 
ever, are agreed, and no other render- lations the construction is not adapted 
ing seems to be admissible — "The to the original, in opix>sition to strict 
mind is supreme, the mind is the rules. 

cause." The latter term " shi " 


The mind is the origin of all that is ; it is the mind 
that commands, it is the mind that contrives. If in 
the mind there are good thoughts, then the words 
are good and the deeds good, and the happiness 
which results from such conduct follows that man, 
as the shadow accompanies the substance." 

On hearing these words, the king and his ministers, 
with countless others, were converted, and became dis- 

2. In days of old, at the back of the Gridhrakuta moun- 
tains, near Eajagriha, there was a village, of some seventy 
or so families, all of them Brahmans. Buddha wishing to 
convert these people, came to the place and sat down under 
a tree. The people seeing the dignity of his presence, and 
the glorious appearance of his body, flocked round him, on 
which he asked the Brahmans how long they had dwelt in 
the mountain there, and what their occupation was. To 
this they rephed — "We have dwelt here during thirty 
generations past, and our occupation is to tend cattle." 
On asking further as to their religious behef, they said — 
" We pay homage and sacrifice to the sun and moon, the 
rain (water), and fire, according to the several seasons. If 
one of us dies, we assemble and pray that he may be born 
in the heaven of Brahma, and so escape further trans- 
migrations." Buddha rephed to this — " This is not a safe 
way, nor by it can you escape from the three evil ways of 
further existence. The true way is to follow me, become 
true ascetics, and practise complete self-composure with a 
view to obtain Nivana ; " and then he added these lines : 

"They who consider truth as that which is un- 
true,^ and regard that which is untrue as truth, 

1 This corresponds with V. ii of the Pali "saro"is in agreement (but it 
Pali. The Chinese " chin " is always may also con'espond with " essentia.'" 
used for ' ' Truth, " and, therefore, the F. ) 


this is but to adopt heretical opinions/ and can 
never lead to true advantage. But to know as 
truth that which is true, and to regard as false 
that which is false, this is perfect rectitude, and this 
shall bring true profit. Everywhere in the world 
there is death — there is no rest in either of the three 
worlds. The Devas, indeed, enjoy a period of bliss ; 
but their happiness also must end, and they must 
also die ! To consider this as the condition of all 
states of being (worlds), that there is nothing born 
but must die, and, therefore, to desire to escape 
birth and death, this is to exercise one's self in Eeli- 
gious Truth." 

The seventy Brahmans hearing these words, desired at 
once to become Shamans ; and on being welcomed by 
Buddha, their hair fell off, and they presented the appear- 
ance of true disciples. Then they all set out to return to 
the Vihara, and on the road certain thoughts about their 
wives and families troubled them, whilst at the same time 
a heavy downpour of rain prevented their advance. Then 
Buddha, knowing their thoughts, caused some ten houses 
to appear by the road-side, in which they sought shelter; 
but on entering one of them it was soon perceived that 
through the roof the rain found its way, and there was but 
little protection from the wet, on which Buddha added 
these lines, and said : 

" As when a house-roof is not properly secured,^ 
then the rain finds a way through it and drops 
within, so when the thoughts are not carefully con- 
trolled, the desires (sexual desires) will soon bore 

1 Or "this is but an erroneous view "- In the Pali, v. 13, ss. The agi-ee- 
of the case " {JaUl studii participes, ment is very close. 




throurfi all our 2food resolutions. But as when a 
roof is well stopped then the water cannot leak 
through, so by controlling one's thoughts, and act- 
ing with reflection, no such desires can arise or 
disturb us.'* 

The seventy Brahmans, on hearing these lines, although 
convinced that their desires were reprehensible, yet were 
not wholly free from doubt, nevertheless they went for- 

As they advanced they saw some scented paper on the 
ground, and Buddha took the opportunity of calling their 
attention to it ; and after this, seeing some fish-gut also 
lying about, he directed their notice to its ill-odour, and 
then added these Hnes, and said : l 

''He who consorts with the low and the base, 
contracts the same character as he who handles a 
foul substance ; he goes from worse to worse, and 
utterly without reason, he perfects himself in wicked- 
ness. But the wise man (consorting with the wise) 
contracts the same character, even as the scent of a 
sweet odour adheres to him who handles it ; ad- 
vancing in wisdom, practising virtue, he goes on to 
perfection, and is satisfied." 

The seventy Brahmans, hearing these verses, convinced 
that their desire to return home and enjoy personal 
indulc^ence was the evil taint that adhered to them, cast 
off such thoughts, and, going forward, came to the Vihara, 
and finally obtained the condition of Eahats. 

3. In former days, when the nobleman Sudatta had 
bought of the heir-apparent, Jeta, the ground for a Vihara, 
at Sravasti, then the said nobleman had invited Buddha 

^ This agrees with the story of Nanda (" Romantic Legend," p. 376). 


and his followers to partake of liis hospitality for a month, 
in consequence of which, and the sermons which the World- 
honoured then preached, all those present ohtained en- 
lightenment, and the Prince himself returned with joy to 
the Eastern Palace, i 

Now Virudhaka, the prince's brother, was always near 
the person of the king ; and on this occasion his majesty, 
with his suite, and the oflB.cers of the " after palace," pro- 
ceeded to robe themselves, with the intention of visiting 
Buddha. Having arrived at the place where he was, they 
paid him the customary reverence, and with undivided 
attention listened to his instruction. 

Meantime Virudhaka, remaining behind, was invited by 
the courtiers, in the absence of his father, to occupy his 
throne ; and once seated there, he was unwilling to retire 
from it. [The consequence was, he sent and caused his 
father, and 500 of his followers, to be put to death. On 
which Buddha recited these lines] : 

'* The man who causes joy now, shall rejoice here- 
after. Living virtuously, he doubly rejoices — he 
rejoices and is glad ; seeing his own happiness, his 
heart is at rest. He rejoices now, he rejoices here- 
after; doing right, he has a double joy ; he enjoys 
Divine protection (here), and he receives his reward 
and is at rest (hereafter).''^ 

And then Buddha having foretold that Virudhaka, after 
seven days, should go down to hell, added these words : 

" He who causes sorrow suffers sorrow hereafter. 
Walking in sin he doubly suffers — reflecting on the 
evil he has done, he suffers ; seeing his guilt, he 

1 The Eastern Palace is alluded to 2 These verses correspond with 16, 
by Fa-hien, and also in General ss,, in the Pali. 
Cunningham's Arch. Survey of India 


suffers more in prospect of the future. The man 
who repents (mourns) now, repents hereafter. On 
account of his evil deeds he mourns in both worlds ; 
seeing his own evil works, he endures the grief con- 
sequent on guilt (in this world), and he inherits the 
misery of his evil deeds (in the next)." 

Buddha having addressed the people and the Prince 
Jeta at further length, on the folly of covetousness and an 
evil ambition, and Virudhaka having, as the prediction 
went, fallen into the condition of a lost man, the whole 
assembly was convinced, and were brought to a knowledge 
of the truth. 

( 69 ) 



I. In days of old there were five liundred mercliants, who, 
after a voyage on the deep, were returning to their homes, 
when in traversing certain deep and dangerous passes the 
evil spirits so bewildered them that, being unable to find 
their way out, they at last were exhausted from want of 
food and lay down and died, leaving their treasures 
scattered about the mountains. At this time a certain 
Shaman, who was practising austerities in that neigh- 
bourhood, seeing the valuables lying about, thought thus 
with himself — " I have been exercising myself in self- 
denial for these seven years past, and have failed to reach 
my aim. I will take these valuables and go home again." 
Then Buddha, recognising the condition of this Shaman, 
and knowing that he would arrive at deliverance, caused 
the appearance of a Bhikshunt, with a head-dress adorned 
with jewels. On seeing her, the Shaman was astonished, 
and said, '' How is it that you, a Bhikshuni, are thus 
adorned ? " To which she replied, " But how is it that 
you, a Shaman, are also in possession of wealth and jewels, 
which are forbidden to one of your calling ? " — and then 
she added these lines, and said : 

^' A Bhikshu diligently adheres to the rules (of 
his calling). A man who is careless and negligent 
in these, accumulates much sorrow. He who care- 

^ As I have observed in the Pre- iii. is "Keflection," agreeing with the 
face, the title of this chapter in Cod. Pali. 


fully attends to little matters, arrives at great re- 
sults ; lie who accumulates evil actions must enter 
the fiery pit. But guarding the precepts, then one's 
happiness increases, and the gladness consequent 
upon it, as the contrary neglect of them leads to 
remorse and bitterness of heart. The Bhikshu who 
is able to get rid of all remnants of worldly attach- 
ment (the three worlds), this one is verily near to 

Then the Bhikshuni re- appearing in the glorious form of 
Buddha, the Shaman, filled with astonishment and fear, 
fell down at his feet, and repenting of his carelessness and 
ignorance, vowed to amend his life and follow his duty 
with anxious care. On this the World-honoured one forth- 
with recited these gathas : 

*' Although a man may have heretofore been 
careless, yet if afterwards he is able to govern and 
restrain himself, this man becomes illustrious in (or 
illumines) the world, and the more he reflects the more 
resolved will he become (to use self-restraint). A man 
may have done many things wrong, but if he recovers 
himself and atones for the evil by doing good, this 
man becomes illustrious in the world, and the more 
he reflects the more virtuous he will become. The 
man who in the prime of life leaves his home and 
perfectly tutors himself in the doctrine of Buddha, 
this man shines out in the world as the moon when 
it bursts from a cloud. The man who in times past 
has done wickedly, but afterwards halts in his 
career and ofi'ends no more — that man shines out 
in the world as the moon when it emerges from the 


On hearing these lines, tlie Shaman again prostrated 
himself at the feet of Buddha, and returning to his soli- 
tary seat underneath a tree, applied himself sedulously to 
practise self-government and contemplation, and thus 
recovered the ground he had lost, and attained the fruit 
of Eahatship. 

( 72 ) 



I. In times of old, when Buddha dwelt in the world, there 
was a certain religious person who had taken his abode 
under a tree beside the bank of a river. After practising 
himself in religious exercises for twelve years, he was still 
unable to get rid of worldly thoughts, or to banish recol- 
lections of worldly pleasures — to wit, those resulting from 
sight, or hearing, or smelling, or tasting, or handling, or 
thoughts about the properties of things around him (dharma) 
— and thus after these twelve years he was still uncon- 
verted. Buddha, perceiving his capability of conversion, 
transformed himself into a Shaman, and came to the tree 
where he sat, and occupied a place near the other. After 
a while, in an interval of moonshining, lo ! they saw a 
tortoise come up out of the river, and come towards the 
tree ; at the same time a hungry river-dogi coming along 
endeavoured to lay hold of the tortoise to eat him. But 
no sooner did he make the attempt than the tortoise, 
gathering up his head and tail and legs into his shell, was 
in perfect safety, and the dog could do him no harm. But 
no sooner had the dog gone on than the tortoise, emerging 
from his concealment, walked on again as before. On this 
the ascetic observed to the Shaman — " This tortoise, be- 
cause it possesses such a safe protection (lit. ' a casque of 
salvation '), the dog was disappointed of his meal." To 
which the Shaman replied — " I remember a man who was 
very different from this. This man, forgetting the im- 

1 otter? 


permanency of all earthly things, and indulging in the 
six pleasures of sense, fell an easy victim to Mara ; l his 
body dissolved, his spirit 2 gone, he was whirled again 
through the endless forms of repeated births, a victim of 
the sorrows and the misery formed by his ill-regulated 
thoughts ; and then he repeated these gathas : 

'^ This body of thine shall soon return to the 
earth — your form destroyed, your spirit fled — why, 
then, covet such an abode ? It is the mind that 
makes its own dwelling-place ; from earliest time, 
the mind reflecting on evil w^ays, itself courts its 
own misery. It is the very thought that itself 
makes (its sorrow). Not a father or mother can do 
so much ; ^ if only the thoughts be directed to that 
which is right, then happiness must necessarily fol- 
low. Concealing the six appetites as the tortoise 
conceals his limbs, guarding the thoughts as a city 
is surrounded by the ditch, then the wise man in 
his struggle with Mara shall certainly conquer, and 
free himself from all future misery." 

Then the Bhikshu, having heard these words, putting 
away all lustful desires, attained Eahatship, and recog- 
nising Buddha in the form of the Shaman, he prostrated 
himself at his feet ; and all the Devas, Nagas, and Spirits, 
who surrounded the spot, were fiUed with unutterable joy. 

1 MS,ra the Tempter (in whatever ss. of the Pali. This story of the 
sense). tortoise occurs throughout all the 

2 Shin=spirit or "soul." versions. 
2 These stanzas corresj^ond with 40 

( 74 ) 



1. In days of old, when Buddha was residing at Sravasti, 
there was to the south-east of that country, in the mid- 
ocean, a certain islet (a mound, or fort, or look-out), on the 
top of which was a tree that bare beautiful scented flowers. 
In the same spot dwelt five hundred women of the 
Brahman caste, wholly devoted to their worldly duties, 
ignorant that there was a Buddha born in the world. Now 
these women were in the habit of conversing together on 
the unhappiness of their worldly condition, and in conse- 
quence they used to go to the tree that surmounted their 
abode, and pluck the flowers and offer them to Brahma- 
deva, with the prayer that they might escape the power of 
Yama, and be born in heaven (Brahma-heaven). ISTow 
Buddha, perceiving their case, and knowing that they had 
the capacity of being converted, suddenly transported him- 
self with his followers to their place of abode, and then 
came and sat down near them. The women seeing the 
wonderful sight, were lost in amazement, and exclaimed, 
" Brahma himself has come to answer our prayers 1 " But 
on this a certain Deva answered them, and said, " This is 
not Brahma, but the World-honoured Buddha, who has 
come to save the world." On this the women bowed 
down in reverence, and addressed Buddha in these 
words — " We, indeed, are but women, much polluted, 
yet we desire, above all things, to escape the power of 
Yama, and to be born in the highest heaven ; " to whom 
Buddha replied, " May you, indeed, obtain your desire ! 


But there are two things in tlie world wliich are im- 
mutably fixed — that good actions bring happiness, and 
bad actions result in misery. But (it is not generally 
known that) the joys of heaven as well as the sorrows 
of earth are both to be avoided. Wlio, tlien, is able to 
pluck and to hold the true joy of perfect rest (the rest of 
non-action) ? Truly ye have understanding, women ! " 
and therefore he recited these crathas : 


" Who is able to select (conquer ?) ^ the earth (i.e., 
the place of his abode), to escape Yama,^ and lay 
hold of heaven ? Who (is able) to repeat the verses 
of the Law as one who selects choice (excellent) 
flowers ? The enlightened (one) selects the earth, 
avoids Yama, seizes heaven, illustriously repeats 
the verses of the Law, is able to cull the flowers of 
virtue. Knowino^ that the world is like a hillock of 
sand,^ that it is unsubstantial as a mirage, he sepa- 
rates the flowery arrows of Mara,* and escapes from 
the necessity of birth and death. ^ Eegarding the 
body as a bubble, as a self-created mirage, he sepa- 
rates the flowery garland of Mara, and escapes from 
birth and death." 

And so the 500 women were converted, and, in reply to 
Ananda, Buddha explains how these women had formerly 
lived in the time of Kasyapa Buddha, and because of their 
devotion to him, were now privileged to live in the time 
of Sakya Buddha, and to be converted by him. And so on 
another occasion Buddha recited these gathas : 

1 This is expressed by a difficult (as a proper name) except by the 
passage. The Chinese tseh means Pali translation. 

"to select" or "pick out," and the 3 Like "froth" (Pali), v. 46. 

whole verse seems to allude to choos- ^ Instead oi foo I have been obliged 

ing " a future abode " (bhumi). to substitute tsin, an arroto. 

2 The expression "lam " in Chinese ^ Probably the word sing is a mis- 
could hardly have been understood take for u-angr, " King of Death." 


" As many kinds of flowers when waived to and 
fro scatter tlieir scent far and wide/ so wide is the re- 
nown of his accumulated merits, who once is born 
and lives as he ought. The scent of the Vassikl flowers 
does not travel against the wind, but the (odour) of 
those who live religiously spreads far and wide — 
the fame of the virtuous man pervades all places. 
The scent of sandal-wood and the Tagara,^ of 
the Lotus and Yassiki flower, although real and 
sensible, is not as the fragrance of (him who walks 
according to) the precepts. Mean and false in com- 
parison is the scent of the rarest flowers with the 
fame of him who holds by virtue, the excellency of 
whose conduct rises to heaven. He who thus lives 
in perfect agreement with the precepts, who walks 
circumspectly, and who by fixed thought has ob- 
tained release, he has far out-distanced the way of 

And on another occasion, when Buddha was residing 
on the Gridlirakuta Mountain, near Eajagriha, he recited 
the following sathas : 

'^to o"^ 

" As a ditch ^ in the field, close beside the high- 
way, will produce the lily in its midst, and spread 
far and wide its delightful perfume, so in the 
midst of life and death (that is, the phenomenal 
world), beside the way of false speculation (universal 
inquiry), the wise man difi'uses his glad sentiments 
in becoming a disciple of Buddha." 

^ Agreeing with v. 53 (the Southern - Notice should be taken of the 

version). It is possible that the syni- symbols used for Vassiki and Tagara. 

bol " to " in the text ought to be trau- ' Pali, v. 58, 59, vv. 
slated " Tagara." 

( 11 ) 



I. On a certain occasion, when Buddha was residing at 
Sravasti, there was a certain rich Brahman, eighty years 
old, who had built himself a large house, in ignorance of 
the impermanency of earthly things, in prospect of a long 
life. Buddha sent Ananda to this man, and knowmg that 
his death was near, he inquired why he had built such 
a house with so many apartments ; and on the man giving 
his reasons, and explaining the several purposes of the 
numerous chambers, then the World-honoured repeated 
these gathas : 

" ^ I have children and wealth,* such is the con- 
stant thought of the fool. He is not even his own 
master (or, himself) — what, then, are his children and 
his money ? If it is hot, it will be so ; if it is cold, 
it will be so. Many are the anxieties of the foolish 
man, but yet he knows nothing of the changes of 
the future. The fool who knows not his extreme 
folly yet claims knowledge ; the fool who says he 
is wise is foolish indeed." 

On the old man returning to his dwelling, he suddenly 
fell dead from a blow received as he walked, on which 
Buddha repaired to the place, and for the sake of the other 
Brahmans recited these verses : 

" A fool, though he live in the company of the 


wise, understands nothing of the true doctrine, as a 
spoon tastes not the flavour of the soup. The man 
of discernment, frequenting the society of the wise, 
in a moment perceives the secret of the true doc- 
trine, as the tongue perceives the flavour of the 
broth. Even the charity of the fool is a cause of 
sorrow to him ; how much more his evil deeds ! 
That deed is ill done that causes repentance here- 
after ; the reward of which is accompanied by tears 
and a rueful face." 

On hearing^ these lines the Brahmacharins were con- 
verted, and worshipping Buddha, arose and departed. 

On another occasion, when a Pratyeka Buddha, called 
Kala, entered Nirvana, after enduring the insults of certain 
women as he begged his food, the World-honoured uttered 
these verses : 

^^ The fool and his fellows^ doino* evil are unable 
to deliver themselves. Misfortune follows them 
with its certain burning. Their evil deeds must 
result, when they are completed, in entire destruc- 
tion. The fool, whilst in the flesh, recognises not 
the misery he is entailing on himself; but when he 
sinks into the place of perdition, then he knows his 
own folly." 

^ Yu cKhwang^ wliich may mean simply the "stupid." 

( 79 ) 



I. There was in old time a Brahmacharin just twenty years 
of age, who, being possessed of brilliant talent, foolishly 
thou£jht that he could be instructed in no art or accom- 
plishment common in the world. Taking his travels, 
therefore, he came to a country where he saw a fietcher 
making his arrows and shaping his bow ; on seeing which 
he was convinced of his ignorance in this respect ; and so 
also in another country, seeing a man building a ship, he 
was equally convinced; and so again when in another 
place he saw a man making a royal palace. Having 
learnt all these arts, and passed successively through six- 
teen countries, he came back to his own place, and boast- 
fully asked, " Who is there in the world more acquainted 
with the arts than myself ? " 

Buddha perceiving his capacity for conversion, changed 
himself into a Shaman, and coming where he resided, with 
his robes orderly arranged, and his begging-dish in his 
hands, stood before him. " And who are you ? " said the 
Brahmacharin. " I am a man able to govern his body," 
replied the Shaman. " And what is that ? " inquired the 
other, on which the Shaman uttered these verses : 

" The fietcher carves and adjusts the horn of 
which his bow is made ; the pilot manages his ship ; 
the architect hews his beams ; the wise man governs 
his body (himself). For as, by way of simile, the 
solid rock is unshaken by the wind, so the wise 
man, grave of thought, quails not whether praised or 


blamed : just as a deep lake (is not easily stirred but 
remain) tranquil and still), so the wise man hearing 
the Law (way), his heart is quiet and at rest.' 


The Shaman having recited these verses, hy his super- 
natural power raised himself in the air, and exhibited the 
thirty-two superior signs of Buddha's person, on which 
the Brahmacharin was converted, and obtained the fruit of 

2. In old times, when Buddha was residing in Sravasti, 
there was a village about 500 li off, in which dwelt some 
fifty or sixty families (mountain people). Amongst these 
there was a certain poor man and his wife, to whom had 
been born two boys (twins), very lovely to behold, and of 
incomparable grace. The one they called " Grace " (tih), 
the other " Fortunate " (fuh). Now it so happened one day 
the father had returned from his work, and lain down on 
his bed to rest, whilst the mother was still in the fields. 
The two children, who were then only seven or eight 
weeks old, not seeing their father, began to speak reproach- 
fully one with the other, because they were born in such 
circumstances as they were, and had to fare so badly as 
they did. The father, overwhelmed with astonishment at 
hearing the children talking thus, and thinking that they 
were demons in human shape, resolved to kill them and burn 
their bodies. Accordingly, he went out into the fields to 
gather wood for the purpose, and meeting his wife he told 
her all about it. On this the mother, moved with pity, 
and scarce believino- the truth of the matter, becr£jed a 
respite for the children for a few days. On the morrow 
she herself went outside the dwelling and listened, when 
lo ! she heard the children reproaching one another as be- 
fore. On this, being persuaded that they were demons in 
children's form, she consented to the course usual in these 
cases, that they should be burned (either ''burned alive,'' 
or " killed and burned "). At this time Buddha, knowing 

1 Compare vv. 80, 81 of the Pali. 


the circumstances of the case, transported himself to the 
village, and, resplendent with glory, lit up the place and 
all the surrounding country with the brightness of his 
presence. On this the villagers, and especially the parents 
of the children, came near to worship him. On seeing the 
parents, and hearing their account of the children, Buddha 
smiled, and from his mouth proceeded the five-coloured 
rays that shone through heaven and earth, and then he 
related the history of the twins, how that they had been 
disciples of Kasyapa Buddha, and were in a fair way to 
arrive at perfect deliverance, when by mutual conversation 
on heretical doctrines they had hindered their escape, and 
liad continued to be born, at one time in high degree, at 
another time in poverty, and at last as the twins of the 
poor people before him; and then the World-honoured 
recited these gathas : 

**The great man is entirely free from covetous 
desire — he dwells in a place of light himself enlight- 
ened. Although perchance he meet with sorrow, 
he rejoices;^ without ostentation, he exhibits his 
wisdom. The wise man (bhadra) concerns himself 
with no worldly business ; he desires neither wealth, 
children, or possessions (land), always carefully 
observing the precepts, and walking in the way of 
supreme wisdom, he hankers not after strange doc- 
trine (or wealth or honour). The wise man, knowing 
the character of instability,^ as a tree in the midst 
of sand (uses every eflfort) to change his friend 
whose mind is unfixed, and to brino; him back from 
impurity to virtue (purity)." 

On hearing: these lines, the children were able to enter 
as Samaneras into the assembly, and the parents and other 
villagers entered the paths. 

1 Or, although perchance he has sorrow or joy. 

2 Or, knowing one of unstable character. 


( 82 ) 



I. In old time there was a country called Na-lai (Nara), 
near the Southern Sea, in which the people gained their live- 
lihood by seeking for pearls and selling sandal- wood. It 
happened that there were two brothers in this country, 
whose parents being dead, they agreed to separate and 
seek their several fortunes. One of them had a slave 
called Fun-na (Purna) of very quick intellect, who went 
out on his journey to seek for some profitable adventure 
for his master. Having made considerable gain by the 
sale of some ox-head sandal-wood, he came to Sravasti, 
and meeting with Buddha, was converted and became a 
Eahat. Eeturning then to his own people, and exhibiting 
before them the wonderful powers he possessed — viz., of 
ascending into the air, and causing water and fire to pro- 
ceed from his person — he led many of them to become 
disciples, and finally, at their entreaty, Buddha himself 
came to convert the King, on which occasion the World- 
honoured uttered these stanzas : 

'^ His^ mind having been quieted, his words and 
deeds are also at rest ; freed by the truth, in perfect 
peace he returns to (or finds refuge in) Nirvana. 
Free from desire, without entanglements, released 
from the impediments of the world (three worlds), 
all thousfhts of self-indul^^ence s^one, this man is 

^ Compare vv. 96, 98, 99 of the Pali. 


rightly called Superior. Whetlier in tlie liamlet or 
in the wilderness, on the level land or the hioh 
bank of the river, wherever such persons dwell 
there cannot but be delight. They have found 
their delight in the wilderness, where men find 
none ; passionless they rejoice, having no ground 
left for pleasure-seeking." 

( H ) 



I. In old time, when Buddha was residing at Sravasti, there 
was an old mendicant called Pan-teh-san (Patisena ?) 
who being by nature cross and dull, could not learn so 
much as one Gatha by heart. Buddha accordingly ordered 
500 Eahats day by day to instruct him, but after three 
years he still was unable to remember even the one Gatha. 
Then all the people of the country (the four orders of 
people) knowing his ignorance, began to ridicule him, on 
which Buddha, pitying his case, called him to his side, and 
gently repeated the following stanza : — " He who guards his 
mouth, and restrains his thoughts, he who offends not with 
his body, the man who acts thus shall obtain deliverance." 
Then Patisena, moved bv a sense of the Master's ejoodness 
to him, felt his heart opened, and at once he repeated the 
stanza. Buddha then addressed him further — " You now, 
an old man, can repeat a stanza only, and men know this, 
and they will still ridicule you, therefore I will now 
explain the meaning of the verse to you, and do you on 
your part attentively listen." 

Then Buddha declared the three causes connected with 
the body, the four connected with the mouth, and the 
three connected with the thoughts, by destroying which 
men might obtain deliverance, on which the mendicant, 
fully realising the truth thus explained, obtained the con- 
dition of a Eahat. 

Now, at this time there were 500 Bhikshunis (Nuns) 
dwellincj in their Vihara, who sent one of their number to 


Buddha to request him to send them a priest to instruct 
them in the Law, on which Buddha desired the old mendi- 
cant Patisena to go to them for this purpose. On hearing 
that this arrangement had been made, all the nuns began 
to laugh together, and agreed on the morrow, wlien he 
came, to say the Gatha wrong (backward), and so confuse 
the old man and put him to shame. Then on the morrow 
when he came, all the Bhikshunis, great and small, went 
forth to salute him, and as they did so, they looked at one 
another and smiled. Then sitting down, they offered him 
food. Having eaten and washed his hands, they then 
begged him to begin his sermon. On which the aged men- 
dicant ascended the elevated seat, and sitting down, began : 
" Sisters ! my talent is small, my learning is very little. 
I know only one Gatha, but I will repeat that and explain 
its meaning. Do you listen with attention and under- 
stand." Then all the young nuns began to attempt to say 
the Gatha backwards ; but lo ! they could not open their 
mouths ; and filled with shame, they hung down their 
heads in sorrow. Then Patisena having repeated the 
Gatha, began to explain it, head by head, as Buddha had 
instructed him. Then all the female mendicants hearing 
his words, w^ere filled with surprise, and rejoicing to hear 
such instruction, with one heart they received it, and 
became Eahats. 

On the day after this the King Prasenajit invited 
Buddha and the whole congregation of priests to assemble 
at his palace (and partake of hospitality). Buddha there- 
fore recognising the superior and reverend appearance of 
Patisena, desired him to bear his alms-dish and follow him 
as he went. But when they came to the palace-gate, the 
porter, knowing his character (antecedents), would not let 
him go into the hall ; for " We have no hospitality," said 
he, " for a priest who knows but one Gatha ; there is no 
room for such common fellows as you — make place for 
your betters and begone." Patisena accordingly sat down 
outside the door. 


Buddha having now ascended the dais, after having 
washed his hands, lo ! the arm of Patisena, with the alms- 
dish in its hand, entered the room. Then the King, the 
ministers, and all the assembly, seeing this sight, were 
filled with astonishment, and said — "Ah! what arm is 
this ? " On which Buddha replied, " It is the arm of 
Patisena, the mendicant. He has but just obtained en- 
lightenment, and I desired him to bear my alms-dish 
behind me; but the porter has refused him admission, 
and so his arm has appeared with my begging-dish in 
the hand." On this he was admitted and entered the 
assembly. Then Prasenajit, turning to Buddha, said — 
" I hear that this Patisena is a man of small ability, and 
knows only one Gatha, how, then, has he obtained the 
supreme wisdom ? " To whom Buddha replied — " Learn- 
ing need not be much, conduct is the first thing. This 
Patisena has allowed the secret virtue of the words of this 
one Gatha to penetrate his spirit ; his body, mouth, and 
thoughts have obtained perfect quietude ; for though a man 
know ever so much, if his knowledge reach not to his life, 
to deliver him from the power which leads to destruction, 
what benefit can all his learning be ? " and then Buddha 
repeated the following stanzas : 

'^ Although^ a man can repeat a thousand stanzas 
(sections), but understand not the meaning of the 
lines he repeats, this is not equal to the repetition of 
one sentence well understood, which is able when 
heard to control thought. To repeat a thousand 
w^ords without understanding, what profit is there in 
this ? But to understand one truth, and hearing it 
to act accordingly, this is to find deliverance. A 
man may be able to repeat many books, but if he 
cannot explain them what jDrofit is there in this % 

1 Compare these verses with 102 ss. of the PuK. 


But to explain one sentence of the Law, and to 
walk accordingly, this is the way to find supreme 
wisdom (to become a Eahat)." 

On hearing these words, two hundred Bliikshus obtained 
deliverance, and the King and his ministers were lilled 
with joy. 

2. In days of old, when Buddha was living in the Jeta- 
vana Vihara, at Sravasti, preaching his doctrine, there was 
a certain rich Brahman of that country called Yamata, who 
was in the habit of asking^ all the Brahmans of the nei^h- 
bourhood, upwards of 5000 men, to share in his hospi- 
tality, and receive gifts of cattle, slaves, clothes, money, 
&c., in the middle of every fifth year. On the present 
occasion, having received these gifts, and joined in the 
various sacrifices, they came to the place where Buddha 
was, flushed with joy and elated with pride. On this, 
Buddha, having reproved them for their folly, uttered the 
following stanzas : — 

'' If 1 a man each month repeat a thousand sacri- 
fices, and go on making his bodily oflferings with- 
out ceasing, this is not equal to that man's con- 
duct who but for a moment, with undivided atten- 
tion (2/^7^ sin, ekachittam), fixes his mind upon the 
Law. The happiness consequent on one moment 
of deep reflection exceeds that (which results from) 
of the sacrifice of the bodies (of untold victims). 
Although a man for a hundred years worship and 
sacrifice to the spirit of Fire, his merit is not equal 
to that of the man who for a moment pays reve- 
rence to the Three Holy Ones ; the happiness con- 
sequent on one such act of homage excels that 
resulting from all those hundred years." 

^ Compare this with vers. 106, 107 of the Pali. 


On this, tlie World-honoured proceeded to address 
Yamata in the following words : ^ — 

" There are four kinds of charitable offerinors. 
"What are the four ? First, where the gifts are 
large, and the merit small ; secondly, where the 
gifts are small, and the merit large ; thirdly, where 
the crifts are larcre, and the merit laro-e : fourthly, 
where the gifts are small, and the merit also 
small. And now, with respect to the first, w^hen 
is the gift large, and the merit small ? In the 
case of the foolish and deluded man who takes away 
life for the purpose of offering up sacrifices to the 
gods, accompanied by w^ine-drinking, singing, 
dancing, and the bestowal of wealth. Here the 
gifts are great, but the merit small indeed. With 
reo'ard to the case w^hen the crifts are small and the 
merit small, this is so when, from covet ousness and 
an evil heart, the offerino^s criven to the learned 
(or religious persons) are small and stint ; in such 
case the reward also is stint. And w^hen is it that 
the offerino's, thouijh small, entail a laro;e rew\ard ? 
In the case when, from a principle of love, a man 
offers to a virtuous person (or religious man) what 
small oift he has, with a desire to learn from him 
the principles of true wisdom, this man reaps great 
reward. And lastly, the case of a great gift secur- 
inof a o'reat reward, as in the case of one wdio, 
realising the vanity of all earthly things, out of a 
good heart gives his wealth to found monasteries, 
or to purchase grounds for fruits, with which to 
make offerings to the Three Holy Ones, or who gives 

1 The sermon which follows is not a part of Dhammapada, but is in prose. 


clothing and other necessaries for this same pur- 
pose, his merit, like the waters of the five rivers 
which enter the ocean, is immeasurable, his reward 
returns into his own bosom many fold, as the re- 
turn of the seed sown by the husbandman in land 
prepared for it/' 

Yamata and the rest having heard these words, were 
filled with joy, whilst the Devas and Spirits were enabled 
to enter on the first path. Five thousand Brahmacharins 
became disciples, whilst Yamata and the other house- 
holders accepted the five rules, and the King, ministers, 
and others, sousjht refuf]^e in the three defences, and be- 
came lay disciples, and obtained the eyes of the Law 
(religious insight). 

3. There was in old time a certain disorderly person liv- 
ing in Eajagriha, who neither reverenced his parents or paid 
respect to his superiors, but always had resort to sacrifice 
and worship of the sun and moon and fire when he went 
wrong, hoping thereby to get merit, and feel happy in 
himself; but notwithstanding all his bodily exercises, in 
worship and offerings, he found no peace, even after three 
years' incessant perseverance. He at length resolved to 
go to Sravasti to inquire of Buddha. Arrived there, and 
seeing the glory of his person, he fell down at his feet, and 
said how he was placed. Then Buddha explained the 
folly of animal sacrifice, and the uselessness of all such 
exercises where the heart was untouched, and there was 
no filial reverence or dutiful behaviour to those to whom 
it belonged ; and in conclusion recited these Gathas : — 

^'To sacrifice to Spirits in order to find peace 
(merit), or, after this life expecting reward, his hap- 
piness is not one quarter of that man's who pays 
homage to the good. He who is ever intent on good 
conduct and due reverence to others, who always 


venerates old age, four liappy consequences in- 
creasingly attend that man — beauty and strength, 
and life and peace." ^ 

On hearing these words the man was filled with joy, 
and sought permission to become a disciple, and after a 
while attained the condition of a Eahat. 

1 Compare this "with 109 of the Pali, where dyn corresponds to Ch. shau, 
vanno to sih, sukham to ngan, and baJam to lih. 

( 91 ) 



I. Ix old time, wlien Buddha was residing at Eajagrilia, lie 
sent a Ealiat called Sumanta (Su-man-teh) to the country 
of Ki-pin (Cophen, i.e., Gandhara) with some personal 
relics (hair and nail) for a tower-temple {i.e., a temple 
connected with which was a relic tower or stupa) in the 
Southern Mountains, where 500 Kahats constantly dwelt, 
and every morning and evening burnt incense and con- 
ducted worship. At this time there were in the same 
mountains 500 monkeys, who having seen these men at 
their prayers, immediately agreed between themselves to 
erect by the side of a neighbouring deep stream a relic 
tower of stone and wood in honour of Buddha. This they 
did, and above it placed the surmounting pole (Tee) "■• with 
banners and flags. Here they came to worship every 
morning and evening, even as the religious men of the 
neighbouring monastery did. Now it happened about this 
time, owing to the sudden rising of the river, that these 
monkeys were caught by the torrent, and being unable to 
escape were drowned. In consequence of their good deeds, 
however, they w^ere born as Devas in the Trayastriiisas 
Heaven, where they had palaces, and clothes, and food 
according to their new condition. Eeflecting, then, on 

^ The word Tee, as it is used to ring to the worlds supposed to exist 

denote the surmounting ornament of above our own, and over which 

the Buddhist Stupa, is the same as the Buddha rules. The Chinese "ts'ah," 

Burmese "Htee," which again is de- denoting the same thing, is derived 

rived from the Pali "Khetta," signi- from the Sanskiit "Kshetra" (same 

fying "earths" or "worlds," refer- sense). 


their former lives, they saw that they had been the mon- 
keys who were lying drowned in the valley, and accord- 
ingly they descended to earth, and collecting scented wood 
and other necessaries, they made a funeral-pyre on which 
to burn the 5C0 bodies. Being observed by some heretical 
Brahmans who dwelt in the neighbourhood, practising 
their austerities, and having been asked by them the 
reason of their conduct, they explained the whole matter, 
in consequence of which the Brahmans were induced to go 
to Buddha to learn his system of religion — accompanied by 
the Devas. Arrived there, Buddha explained that the 500 
monkeys who were drowned and reborn in Heaven had in 
a former birth been Brahman heretics, who had made ridi- 
cule of, and laughed at the conduct of a Shaman, who 
dwelt in those same mountains, and because of his activity 
in ascendini? and descending the crags whilst engaged in 
building a sacred tower, had called him " Monkey-foot." 
For this they had been born as 500 monkeys ; but because 
of their good deed in erecting the small tower beside the 
stream, they had been now born as Devas. And then 
Buddha added these stanzas : 

" Lightly to laugh at and ridicule another is 
Avrong ; he who has thus acted will certainly re- 
ceive as his reward abundance of tears, according 
to the guilt or aggravation of his conduct." 

On this the 500 Devas prostrated themselves in adora- 
tion, and the 500 Brahmans, being converted, became 

2. In old time, when Buddha was residing in the Jetavana 
at Sravasti, preaching for the benefit of gods and men, the 
Prince Koli having imprisoned his father and killed his 
elder brother, the heir to the throne, proclaimed himself 
King, and inaugurated his reign by the slaughter of 
thousands of the Sakyas, on which occasion the World- 
honoured one, addressing Mugalin, said : 


" Not ^ in the void of heaven, not in the depths 
of the sea, not by entering the rocky clefts of the 
mountains, in none of these places can a man by 
any means escape his destiny, the consequence of 
the evil he has done. All men are liable to sorrow 
and pain ; none can escape old age and death. The 
virtuous man alone possessed of wisdom ; the man 
who gives not way to busy thoughts (about life), 
for him alone there is no evil." 

In consequence of this sermon, countless men who heard 
it were able to enter the paths. 

1 Compare ver. 127 of the P^li. 

( 94 ) 



I. In days gone by there was a country called Kin-tai 
(GandMra ?), in which was a very old mendicant afflicted 
with a very loathsome disease, which caused him to pollute 
every place he occupied. Being in a certain Vihara be- 
longing to the placCj no one would come near him or help 
him in his distress. On this Buddha came with his 500 
followers, and obtaining all sorts of necessary utensils and 
warm water, they together visited the place where the old 
mendicant lay. The smell in the place was so offensive 
that all the Bhikshus were filled with contempt for the 
man : but the World-honoured causinsj Sakra-deva to bringr 
the warm water, then with his own hand (diamond hand) 
began to wash the body of the mendicant and attend to 
his maladies. Then the earth shook, and the whole place 
was filled with a supernatural light, so that the King and 
his ministers, and all the heavenly host (Devas, Nagas, 
&c.) flocked to the place, and paid adoration to Buddha. 
Having done so, they all addressed the World-honoured, 
and inquired how one so highly exalted could lower him- 
self to such offices as these, on which Buddha explained 
the matter thus : 

" The ^ purpose of Tathagata in comiDg into the 
world is to befriend these poor and helpless and 
■unprotected — to nourish those in bodily affliction, 

^ This and the following sections are introduced into the prose part of the 


whether tliey "be Shamans or men of any other 
religion (Tao-sse) — to help the impoverished, the 
orphan, and the aged — and by so doing, and per- 
suading others so to do, the coDsequent merit is 
so great that all his former vows are hereby accom- 
plished, and he attains the great goal of all life, as 
the five rivers when they are lost in the sea." 

The King then asked as to the former condition of this 
old mendicant, and why he was born to so sad a lot, to 
whom Buddha replied : 

" In days gone by there was a king called Evil- 
conduct (Papakamma '?), who governed his subjects 
with tyranny and oppression. He used to send out 
his officers to afflict the people, and with cruel 
lashes to extort from them all they could get. 
There was a certain man of eminence about to be 
whipped, when he begged for mercy as he was a 
disciple of Buddha. On this the officer laid the 
whip lightly on him ; but, nevertheless, because of 
his evil deeds he was afterwards born in hell, and 
repeatedly as a beast, and at last as a man, but 
always miserably diseased. Now at that time the 
King was Devadatta, the executioner was this dis- 
eased monk, and the eminent man was myself; 
but because I was the one who begged for mercy, 
my lot is now to help this wretched man, as he 
had mercy on me." 

And then he repeated the following lines : — 

"He^ who inflicts pain on the gentle and the 
good, or falsely accuses the innocent, this man will 

^ Compare ver. 137 ss. of the Pali. 


inherit one of these ten calamities — either a direct 
visitation from Heaven (by fire, wind, or water) ; 
or, if born, a deformed and diseased body ; or some 
spontaneous fiery outbreak,^ or loss of reason, or 
some false accusation, or some governmental diffi- 
culty, or a gradual loss of worldly substance, or 
alienation of relatives, or destruction of treasure 
(crops or grain) by fire or lightning ; and when 
dead, a birth in hell. These are the ten." 

The diseased monk hearing these words, convinced of 
sin, turned to Buddha and did him reverence, on which 
he arrived at the condition of a Eahat; and the King 
also and his followers, filled with joy, took on them the 
live precepts, and entered the Paths. 

2. In days of old, when Buddha was residing in the Jeta- 
vana, at Sravasti, and preaching his doctrine for the benefit 
of men and gods, there were in a country to the eastward, 
called Uttaravati, a company of 500 Brahmans, who had 
agreed to go together to the residence of a certain Nir- 
grantha ascetic on the banks of the Ganges, who, by pol- 
luting himself with dirt, &c., aspired to the condition of a 
Eishi. On their way they were overtaken in the desert 
with thirst. Seeing a tree, and hoping to find some human 
habitation near, they hastened on to it, but when arrived 
there they found no sign of life ; on this, they raised their 
voices in lamentation. Suddenly from the tree they heard 
the voice of the resident Spirit, who asked them why they 
lamented so, and on hearing the reason, supplied them to 
the full with drink and meat. The Brahmans, ready to 
start onward, asked the Spirit what had been his previous 
history, that he was thus born ; on which he explained 
that having gone to the assembly of priests in Sravasti 
when Sudatta had bestowed the garden on Buddha, he 

1 I cannot translate this passage satisfactorily. 


had remained all night listening to the Law, and having 
filled his drinking-cup with water as he went, had be- 
stowed it in charity among the priests. On his return 
next morning, his wife in anger asked him what annoy- 
ance he had received that he should stop away all night. 
On which he replied that he was not annoyed, but he had 
been to listen to Buddha preaching at the Jetavana. On 
this his wife began roundly to abuse Buddha, and said, 
"This Gotama is but a mad preacher, who deceives the 
people," and so on. On this I resented not her state- 
ments, but rather submitted to them, and so when I came 
to die I was born as a spirit, but on account of my pusil- 
lanimity I was confined to this tree ; and then he recited 
these verses : — 

*^ Saci?ifices and such services are sources of 
misery — day and night a continual burthen and 
anxiety ; to escape sorrow, and destroy the ele- 
ments of the body, a man should attend to the 
Law (of Buddha), and arrive at deliverance from 
all worldly Kules of Eeligion (world Kishis)." 

The Brahmans having heard these words, resolved 
themselves to go to Sravasti, to the place where Buddha 
was, and having explained the object of their visit, the 
World-honoured recited these stanzas : — 

*^ Although 1 a nian goes naked with tangled 
hair, or though he clothe himself with a few leaves 
or garment of bark, though he cover himself with 
dirt and sleep on the stones, what use this in 
getting rid of impure thoughts ? ^ But he who 
neither contends or kills, or destroys by fire, who 

^ Compare ver, 141 of the Pali. 2 Qr, folly. 


desires not to get the victory, who is moved by 
efoodwill towards all the world. There is no 
ground in such a case for ill-will or hate." 

On hearing these ^Yords the Brahmans were converted, 
and became Shamans. 

( 99 ) 



I. Buddha was residing in the Jetavana, at Sravasti. 
After having eaten, he began to preach the Law of Eternal 
Life^ for the benefit of gods and men, in the presence of 
the King and his ministers. At this time there were seven 
men, Brahmans, who had come from a distance, and 
having bowed at the feet of the World-honoured one, 
besought him to allow them to dwell near him, and hear 
liis instructions. Having had the permission, they were 
assigned an upper chamber as their dwelling-place. 
Having retired there, they began to talk together and 
laugh loudly. On hearing this, Buddha went to them, 
and opened his mouth in these words : — 

" What ^ (room for) mirth, what (room for) laugh- 
ter, rememberiog the everlasting burning (or fire). 
Surely this dark and dreary (world) is not fit for 
one to seek security and rest in. Behold this body 
in its fashioning ; what reliance can it afford as a 
resting-place, filled witli crowded thoughts, liable 
to every disease. Oh ! how is it men do not per- 
ceive its false appearances ? When old, then its 
beauty fades away ; in sickness, what paleness and 
leanness — the skin wrinkled, the flesh withered, 

^ " The Law of sweet dew " (ama- foL 9. under the heading of " Imper- 
tam). manence." Compare ver. 146 and ss. 

^ This verse occurs in Cod. iii. , K. I. of the Pali. 


death and life both conjoined. And when the body 
dies, and the spirit flees, as when a royal personage 
rejects a (broken) chariot, so do the flesh and bones 
lie scattered and dispersed. What reliance, then, 
can one place on the body ? " 

On hearing these words, the Brahmans "became sobered 
and thoughtful, and finally attained to the condition of 

2. In days of old, when Buddha was residing in the 
Jetavana, at Sravasti, preaching the Law for the good of 
Devas and men, at this time there was a Brahman village, 
consisting of some five hundred or more families, in which 
were also five hundred young Brahman students training 
themselves in the secret lore of their caste, and filled with 
disdain for all others, without any reverence for old age 
or superior rank. Now these five hundred youths, vaunt- 
ing their own powers of investigating truth, spoke thus : 
" As for this Shaman Gotama, he does but self-style him- 
self Buddha; his talents reach but little way compared 
with ours ; we ought to challenge him to come here and 
dispute with us." Accordingly, they sent one to challenge 
him ; and so Buddha, with all his disciples, came to the 
place, and having sat down beside some running water, 
they ate their food and washed their hands. At this time 
an old Brahman and his wife passed along through the 
village, begging their food. Buddha, knowing that for- 
merly this old man had been very rich, and one of the 
chief ministers of the kingdom, he immediately turned to 
the young Brahmans, and asked them whether they knew 
who this old man was ? They all answered at once, " We 
know perfectly." And then Buddha inquired again, " And 
who is he ? " They said, " He was formerly a great mini- 
ster, and very rich." "Then how is it (Buddha asked) 
he is now begging his food ? " To which they replied, 
" Because he took no care of his money, and was foolish 

OLD AGE. loi 

in using it, he is now poor." Then Buddha said, " Brah- 
mans ! there are four things in the world difficult to do ; 
those who can do them shall certainly obtain much hap- 
piness (merit), and escape poverty. And what are the 
lour ? First, when in the heyday of youth not to be dis- 
dainful; secondly, when advancing in years to give up 
thoughts about pleasure (sensual indulgence) ; thirdly, 
when rich, to be ever mindful of charity ; fourthly, to give 
respectful attention to the words of a wise teacher. It is 
for want of observing these four rules that this old Brah- 
man (gentleman) has come to his present condition, and 
is like an old stork sitting beside a dried- up pond. And 
then the World-honoured added these stanzas, and said : — 

*' To be constantly (morning and night) disdain- 
ful and supercilious, when old still to be lustful, 
Laving wealth to be niggardly, to reject the words 
of Buddha — these four propensities, what miseries 
do they bring ; and, alas ! when old age comes (how 
do they add to), the withered form and the worn-out 
appearance ! The man who, when young, pleases 
himself, when old shall be trodden down. Not 
walking continently (in mature years), riches shall 
slip from him (when old) — even as the white stork 
that sits alone by the dried-up pool, so he who has 
disregarded the Eules of a Moral Life shall come 
to poverty. Old and feeble, with exhausted 
powers — what good can follow anxious thought. 
When old, like autumn leaves, decayed and with- 
out covering, life ebbed out and dissolution at 
hand, little good repentance then ! " 

And then Buddha added — " There are four opportunities 
given to every one who is leading a religious life, to attain 
deliverance and to avoid sorrow ; and what are the four ? 


First, when young and capable of high moral resolves 
secondly, when rich and possessed of means; thirdly, 
when happy enough to gain the knowledge of the three 
honourable ones, and so have the opportunity of widening 
one's capabilities of merit ; fourthly, when by experience 
a man has learned the vanity of earthly things, to act 
accordingly. Those who avail themselves of these oppor- 
tunities will in the end certainly attain wisdom ; " and 
then the World-honoured one added these stanzas : — 

"Day and night, striving to get rid of fleshly 
desires, and at the right opportunity putting forth 
earnest effort ; discovering the truth that all things 
are impermanent — such a man shall never fall into 
the pit of destruction. Aiming to learn how to 
kindle the lamp of reflection, and seeking in the 
light of experience supreme wisdom (prajna), re- 
moving all defilements, and avoiding pollution, by 
this light a man shall discover the ground of escape 

The World-honoured having uttered these words, caused 
the glory of his person to manifest itself, and in conse- 
quence the young Brahmans were convinced of his charac- 
ter, and besought permission to enter the church, and at 
length arrived at perfect deliverance (the condition of 

( I03 ) 



I. In old time there was a country called To-mo-lio-lo 
(Damakara ?), and about seven lis from the (chief) city 
there was a Vihara, in which dwelt 500 Shamans. Amongst 
these was an aged mendicant named Mo-ho-lu (Makhara ?), 
who, being of a heavy and dull mind, was unable to learn 
even one Gatha, though instructed by the 500 Shamans 
through many years. On this he w^as treated contemptu- 
ously by the rest, and not allowed to go in their company, 
but left to sweep the monastery, and look after the cells of 
the monks. On one occasion the King of the country had 
asked all the Shamans to assemble at his palace, and 
accept his hospitality. On this occasion, Makhara, having 
been left behind as usual, he thought thus with himself — 
" I have been born dull and stupid, and cannot even recol- 
lect one verse of Scripture. What use is it to live any 
longer, to be neglected and despised by my fellow-men ? " 
On this he took a rope, and going to the back of the 
garden, he placed himself under a great tree intending to 
hang himself. At this time Buddha, by his power of 
religious discernment (eyes of religion), seeing the case of 
this man, transformed himself at once into the appearance 
of the Tree-Spirit, and with half his bodyl projecting 
from the tree, addressed the old monk in these words of 

1 This is constantly the sign of a the Tree, is respectfully acknowledg- 

supernatural appearance, as e.g., in ing the announcement of Buddha's 

in PI. xci. fig. 4, "Tree and Serpent birth, and, in so doing, reveals " half 

W^orship," where the Deva of the his body." [This scene is frequently 

Bodhi Tree, or the Vajrasana under referred to in Buddhist books.] 


expostulation — " Pslia ! pslia ! thou (foolisli) mendicant, 
what art thou going to do ? " On this Makhara opened 
out the cause of his grief ; on which the Tree- Spirit con- 
tinued and said — " Do no such thing as this, but listen to 
my words : In the time of Kasyapa Buddha, long ago, you 
were then a Shaman deeply acquainted with the three 
books (baskets — i.e., Pitakas), and among your 500 brethren 
you were pre-eminent, in consequence of Avhich you were 
filled with pride and self-complacency, and despised all 
others on account of their ignorance ; and because you 
died then without repentance, it has been your lot ever 
since to be born dull and stupid — what good, then, to 
destroy yourself ? " 

And then Buddha, appearing in all his glory, added 
these verses : — 

" If ^ a man love himself, let him carefully pro- 
tect that which he is so anxious about (i.e..^ himself). 
If he ho23e to be delivered from carnal desire, let 
liim learn the right way without indolence (sleep). 
Himself, this is the first consideration ; let him put 
forth his own power and attain wisdom. Profiting 
(himself in this way), he may then instruct others. 
Unwearied in his efi'orts, he will then gain wisdom. 
The enlightened man will first govern himself, 
then in due time he will be able to govern others. 
Eegulating his own conduct (himself), and entering 
(on the domain of) true wisdom, he must necessarily 
ascend to the highest 2)l^^ce (^.6., become eminent). 
But if one cannot improve (profit) oneself, how can 
such an one benefit others ; and, on the other hand, 
what desire (vow) may not be accomplished when 
oneself is able to lord it rightly over oneself ? That 

1 Compare ver. 157 of the Pali. 


which I now do in my body, liereafter shall I my- 
self receive ; if I do evil, myself will cause the more, 
as the steel drill bores the gem." ^ 

Makhara, on hearing these words, and seeing the glory 
of Buddha's appearance, immediately fell at his feet in 
worship, and was able to attain to peace. Moreover 
Buddha directed him to repair to the King's palace ; and 
having preached there, he became a Eahat. [And the King 
and his ministers, &c., entered on the Paths.] 

2. In days of old, when Buddha was residing at Sravasti, 
there were 500 Brahmans who continually sought to briug 
some raihng accusation against him. Buddha, by his 
divine sight, penetrating their intention, and being moved 
by compassion towards them, desired to bring them to a 
knowledge of the truth. They had arranged between 
themselves to persuade a butcher to ask Buddha to receive 
his hospitality, and then, whilst he was there, to cause the 
slaughter of different creatures around him, so that in con- 
demning slaughter, he must of necessity condemn his host, 
or, in praising his host, he must condone the slaughter. 
Then Buddha, having accepted his host's invitation, ad- 
dressed him thus — " When the fruit is ripe it will fall of 
itself, so when merit is ripe, it will of itself exhibit itself 
(produce salvation)." Then the butcher, returning to his 
house, made all necessary preparations for the entertain- 
ment. At the appointed time Buddha arrived, and having 
mounted the preaching throne, he was moved by a strong 
desire to bring about the conversion of the Brahmans, and 
those assembled with them ; and perfectly knowing their 
hearts, he began by causing his tongue to cover his face,^ 
and his glory to appear through the whole city ; and then 
he uttered the following stanzas : — 

^ Compare ver. 161 of the Pali. assumed to be the proof of strict 

- This extniordinary sign is referred truthfulness, 
to in all Buddhist books, and is 


" The teacliing of the wise "^ is this, that by wis- 
dom we preserve ourselves. The foolish ridicule it 
— they see, and yet do wickedly ; and so by their 
wicked deeds they reap misfortune, as he who sows 
the noxious plant (reaps the same) . The wicked man 
in his own person accumulates (receives the fruit of 
his) guilt ; the good man reaps good fruit (merit) 
in his own person ; and so each one for himself 
prepares the harvest for himself. The concerns of 
another do not effect one's case — doing good, then 
we reap good, just as one who sows that which is 
sweet (enjoys the same).' 


On hearing these words, the Brahmans were convinced 
of their folly, and became disciples. The butcher also and 
his associates were converted, and then the All- Wise re- 
turned to the Vihara. 

1 C/iin^tn, literally, a supernatural wisdom {taon), we may preserve life 

Being. The whole passage, therefore, (or, our body), &c." 

might be rendered " as the teaching ^ This agrees generally with vers, 

of supernatural (religion), is that by 164, 165, of the Pa,li. 

( I07 ) 



I. In days of old there was a certain Brahman King, whose 
name was To-mi-seay (Dhamasa ?). It came into the heart 
of this King one day to distribute, according to the fashion 
of the Brahmans, an unlimited quantity of precious stones, 
&c., among the followers of his faith, the rule being that 
every Brahmacharin who came as a recipient (beggar) 
might take a handful from the heap and go. And so for 
many days the affair was conducted ; and yet the pile of 
wealth did not appear to diminish. On this, Buddha, 
knowing the condition of the King, and his aptitude 
(capacity) for conversion, transformed himself into a 
Brahmacharin, and went to the spot. The King going out 
from his palace, when he beheld him approaching, paid 
him due respect, and conducting him within, inquired 
what he would desire to receive, and requested him to 
have no reserve in asking. On this the Brahmacharin re- 
plied, " I have come from far, and I desire to beg a few 
jewels, that I may have enough to build me a house." 
The King immediately answered, " Most virtuous sir, you 
may take a handful, and welcome." On this the Brahma- 
charin took so much from the heap, and then having gone 
seven paces, he returned and replaced them on the heap. 
On this the King inquired why he acted thus, in not 
taking the jewels. Whereupon the Brahmacharin replied, 
" This handful is indeed enough to enable me to build a 
house ; but afterwards I shall want to take a wife, and 
for that purpose this handful is not sufficient." On this 


the King bade him take three handfiils, and welcome. 
Having done so, and gone seven paces, again he returned 
and replaced the jewels on the heap. Whereupon the 
ELing once more inquired his reason for so doing, to which 
he replied, " These might be enough to provide me with 
house and wife, but then I shall have to buy slaves and 
oxen and horses, and for this purpose the three handfuls 
are not sufficient." On this the King said, " Take then 
seven handfuls, and welcome." The Brahmacharin having 
done so, and gone seven paces, again returned and did as 
before, saying that these seven handfuls, though enough for 
the purpose assigned, would yet not suffice for the main- 
tenance and welfare of his children. On this the King 
bade him take the whole heap of jewels, and use them for 
the purposes named. Accordingly the Brahmacharin did 
so, and departed. On this the King, astonished, cried 
out to him in a loud voice what his reason for so acting 
might be ? To which the man replied, that those who 
hegged sought only things for the present life; whilst 
those who thought, found out the instability and imperma- 
nence of all worldly things, and the ever-accumulating 
mass of sorrow and pain that resulted from a worldly life. 
And on this, resuming his own glorious body as Buddha, 
he added these stanzas : — 

"Though a man possessed a heap of jewels as 
high as heaven, enough to fill the world, not so 
happy he as one who apprehends the first principles 
of truth ; he who makes vice resemble virtue, and 
love resemble hate (or, confuses the one with the 
other), he who confounds the true source of joy 
with sorrow — that man surely, bereft of reason, 
causes his own destruction." 

Hearing these words, the King was filled with joy, and 
both he and his ministers received the precepts, and 
entered the Paths. 

( 109 ) 



I. In days of old Buddha was residing in Magadha, under 
the tree that overshadowed the Bodhimanda. Having by 
the power of his presence (virtue) overpowered Mara, he 
was considering with himself that the five men whom for- 
merly his father had sent to look after him/ and provide 
him with sufficient food, were in a condition to hear the 
sound of the drum of the Law of eternal life ; and per- 
ceiving that they were at Benares, he immediately rose 
from underneath the tree, whilst the heaven and earth 
were lit up with a supernatural light, and the ground 
underneath him shook. Eejoiced at these indications, he 
went forward, and in the mid-road he encountered a 
Brahmacharin named Upaka (Yeon-fu), who had left his 
relations and home in search of a teacher to guide him 
in the way of truth. Beholding the World-honoured one, 
how reverend his appearance and joyous his mien as he 
went on the way, he cried to him with a loud voice, " 
sir! full of religious thought and spiritual discernment, 
What is your history, and who has been your teacher, 
that you have arrived at such a condition as this ? " To 
whom Buddha replied in the following stanzas : — 

"Of myself, and by myself, have I attained to 
the eiiilitfold Wisdom 2 — there is now nothinor to 

^ This is a new idea, as far as I Kwo-hu-in-tsai-yin-kico, Kiouen 3, 

know, with reference to the five f. ?,.] 

men. [The incident is referred to in 2 The Ashtangamarga vic^e " Eitel's 

a Chinese Life of Buddha called Handbook," sub Marga. 


removej nothing tliat defiles. All love of earthly 
things is at an end. I have destroyed the net of 
lust. Of myself, without any master, have I at- 
tained this position ; nor need I now any protector 
or patron. Alone I stand, without any associate 
in conduct ; having had this one aim, I have be- 
come Buddha (enlightened), and by this, have 
attained perfect holiness." 

Upaka having heard these words, without any spiritual 
understanding, asked further, " Well, Gotama,i which way 
are you going ? " To which Buddha replied, " I am going 
to Benares, to sound the drum of the insurpassable Law, 
which never yet has been heard, by which both Devas and 
men may attain Mrvana, even as I now have attained." 
Then Upaka joyously replied, " Well said ! sadhu ! may 
you, as you say, be able to declare the Law of Eternal 
Life ! " And having said so, Upaka turned away on 
another way, and so lost the chance of finding a teacher 
to guide him into the right way.^ In the middle of that 
night Upaka died ; on which occasion Buddha, perceiving 
the fact by his spiritual sight, spoke as follows (after a " 
similar sentiment in prose) : — 

" Perceiving truth, pure and unalloyed, delivered 
from the five paths of destruction (five modes of 
birth), Buddha has come forth to enlighten the 
world, to make a way of escape from all sources of 
sorrow and pain. To be born as a man is difiicult ; 3 
to attain to years {i.e., to live long) is also difiicult ; 

1 We need scarcely remark that the ^ Compare ver. 182 of the Pali, in 

epithet Gotama in the Northern Books which I think the expression, '"'"hard 

is sometimes a mark of disrespect or is the life of man" (M. M.), may rea- 

indifference. sonably be changed into the "d/^- 

^ For this story of Upaka, vide cult,'" kc. This verse is found in the 

"ivomantic Legend," p. 245. "SCitra of Forty-two Sections." 


to be born when Buddha is incarnate is difficult ; 
and to hear the preaching of the Law of Buddha is 
difficult also." 

On hearing these words, five hundred heavenly visitors 
were filled with joy, and entered the Paths. 

2. In days of old there was a country about 4000 lis to 
the south of Eajagriha wholly given up to Brahmanic rites, 
with about a thousand Brahmans (or several thousands) as 
inhabitants. At a certain period there was a drought in 
that country, extending over a space of three years. In 
vain the people had made sacrifices to all their gods — no 
good resulted. At length the King asked the Brahma- 
charins how this happened ; to which they replied, " We 
must observe the very utmost of the Law, and dismiss 
certain men to hold converse with Brahma Leva, and re- 
quest an end of these calamities." On which the King 
demanded their intentions, with a view to forward them, 
to which they replied, " We require to have twenty 
chariots, with wood, incense, unguents, flags, and money, 
and sacrificing vessels." The King having provided these 
things, they departed from the city about seven lis, and 
there, on a level space of earth, they erected their wood 
on hic^h, and then exhorted one another not to rei:^ard their 
present bodily condition, but to aspire to be born in the 
heaven of Brahma ; and so at length seven men were in- 
duced to consent to ascend the pyre, and be burned upon 
it. Then, after the usual prayers and ceremonies, they 
mounted the wood, and awaited the end. But when the 
light was applied to the lower part, hearing the crackHng 
sound, and affrighted by the prospect of death, they arose 
and ran here and there, and besought to be rescued — but 
all in vain ; and then, in distraction, they prayed thus, 
" Oh, is there no one in the three worlds to pity us ! Oh, 
come thou and rescue us ! " Hearing these words, Buddha 
appeared in mid-air above them, and as they were filled 
with joy, he said : — 


*' Truly men seek (through fear) many a refuge ; 
they resort to mountains and valleys, and spirits 
residing in trees ; they erect images as gods, and 
pay religious worship to them, seeking happiness 
(merit). ^ But such refuge as this is neither fortu- 
nate or best ; not one of them is able to save thee 
from sorrow (or accumulated pain). But he who 
takes refuge in Buddha, the Law, and the Church, 
and with clear insight penetrates the meaning of 
the four truths, he will certainly attain (see) supreme 
wisdom.^ He who seeks personal refuge in these 
three, finds the most fortunate and the best. In 
these only, without other refuge, a man may find 
deliverance from all sorrow. '^ 

On hearing these words, the sound of fire was no longer 
heard, and the Brahmans and their attendants, as they 
beheld Buddha (who now appeared) in his glory, were 
filled with joy, and beholding his miraculous appearances, 
were converted, and, descending from the pyre, they 
uttered these words : — 

" Oh, the happiness of seeing the Holy One ! 
Oh, the happiness of being able to rely on him as 
present ! Oh, the joy of the man who is able to 
avoid the company of the foolish, and act well and 
virtuously by himself ! How happy he who scrupu- 
lously guards the path of truth (true perception, or 
true ways) ; happy he who can repeat the Law ; 
happy he who avoids discussion (contention) in the 

1 Compare ver. i88 of the Pali. treme misery of repeated birth, and 
- I have accidentally omitted a death ; and to escape the eight calami- 
verse. "By understanding the four ties of life is to get rid of the whole 
truths, a man escapes from the ex- body of pain." 

BUDDHA. 113 

world ; liappy Le who always observes the precepts ; 
happy he who consorts with the good, and treats 
them as his own kith ; he who frequents the com- 
pany of the virtuous is a wise man, and of high 
renown." ^ 

Having said these words, the seven men became Rahats, 
and the King and his ministers, with countless Devas, after 
entering the Paths, were privileged to see much rain 
descending on the land.2 

1 This last verse is difficult totran- ^ The preceding verses correspond 

slate. The phrase "to-%'an" means generally with 194 and 195 of the 

either "celebrated" or " a disciple " Pali. ' 
(one who hears much). 

( 114 ) 



I . In days of old about 300 lis to the south of Eajagrilia 
there was a village of some 500 or so mountain peasants^ 
whose hearts were estranged from religion, and beyond 
the usual means of conversion, and yet were not indif- 
ferent to the hope of final salvation. On this the World- 
honoured One, transforming himself into the appearance 
of a Shaman, went to the village to beg his food, and 
having gathered sufficient, he left the village and took 
his seat beneath a neighbouring tree. Whilst thus sitting 
he entered on a condition of Samadhi called that of Nir- 
vana, and so continued for seven days, without moving, 
and (apparently) without breathing. The men of the 
village seeing him thus, and believing life to be extinct, 
said among themselves, " This Shaman is evidently dead ; 
we will collect wood for a funeral pyre, and burn his 
body." Having done so, they set fire to the wood. After 
it had gone out Buddha arose from its embers, and mani- 
festing his glorious body in various miraculous ways, he 
returned to the shade of the tree where he was before, and 
again seated himself in perfect composure. The villagers, 
seeing this wonderful occurrence, one and all came near 
and paid him reverential homage, and said, "We indeed 
are but poor mountain people, and did not know that you 
were a god, and therefore prepared the pyre to burn your 
body on. We confess our fault, and pray forgiveness, and 
supplicate that no misfortune may befall us in conse- 
quence, whether disease, or famine, or drought." On this 


the World-lionoured opened liis mouth, and uttered these 
stanzas : — 

" My life is now at rest, with no anger amongst 
those who are angry (or those who hate). Men 
indeed on all sides feel anger, but my life (conduct) 
is free from anger. My life is now at rest, free 
from disease amongst the diseased \ all men suffer 
from disease, to me there is none. My life is now 
at rest, sorrowless in the midst of sorrow ; all men 
have sorrow, but I have none. My life is now at 
rest, in perfect peace, without any personal aim 
{ivou ivei), feeding on (unearthly) joys, like the 
bright gods above (Abhasvaras). My life is now 
at rest, calm, indifferent, with no thought about 
* what I must do.' Pile up then the wood, and let 
the fire encircle me ; but how can it touch such an 
one as I ? " ^ 

On this the villacjers embraced the faith and became 
Eahats, and Buddha and his followers returned through 
the air to the bamboo grove, on which occasion the World- 
honoured explained to Ananda that in former days, when 
he had been a Pratyeka 2 Buddha, he had, underneath this 
same tree, obtained JSTirvana, and because the villagers had 
piously burnt his body, and collected his relics and placed 
them in a casket, and done reverence to them, they were 
now privileged to hear him preach, and so had obtained 
the fruition of the Paths. After this explanation, count- 
less Devas obtained knowledge of the Paths. 

2. In days of old, when Buddha was residing in the Jeta- 
vana, at Sravasti, there were four Bhikshus seated under 

1 Compare Max Miiller's note (200) for Pratyeka is "pi-chi," evidently 
about the words of the King of Mi- the translation of the Pali or Miigadhi 
thila. "Pacce(ko)." 

^ Observe that the Chinese phrase 



a tree, who conversed together thus : " What think you is 
the greatest misery to bear in all the world ? " One said 
the greatest misery in the world is lust ; another said the 
greatest misery is hunger and thirst ; another said it was 
anger ; another said it was fear. Whilst they were thus 
disputing, without any hope of agreement, Buddha, know- 
ing the case, transported himself to the spot, and inquired 
what their disputation was about. On this the Bhikshus, 
having arisen and paid him homage, explained how the 
case stood. On this the World-honoured explained that 
they had not got to the bottom of the matter, but that 
the body itself was the greatest misery, for from the body 
comes the misery of hunger and thirst, cold and heat, 
anger, and pride, and lust ; and therefore our aim should 
be to get rid of the body, and thus attain the perfect rest 
of Nirvana. And then he added these stanzas : — 

" There ^ is no burning greater than lust ; there 
is no distress (poison) worse than hate ; there is 
no misery greater than this body ; there is no joy 
like (its) destruction. AYithout accordance there 
can be little joy ; small power of distinguishing 
truth argues little wisdom ; by perceiving and 
seeking for that which is truly great, by this means 
alone one obtains perfect rest. Now I, the Hon- 
oured of the World, fully explain the character of 
the sorrowless ; I fully (am able) to deliver the 
three worlds ; I alone (or by myself alone) have 
overthrown the whole army of Mara (the devil)." 

Having uttered these words, Buddha explained how 
that in ages gone by there was a certain Bhikshu pos- 
sessed of the five supernatural powers {icldhi), who dwelt 
in the mountains under a tree, practising austerities with 

^ Compare ver. 202 of the Pali. 


a view to final release. Whilst dwelling thus, four ani- 
mals also came and took up their abode near liim, namely, 
a small bird (sparrow?), a large bird (quail?), a poisonous 
snake, and a deer. On one occasion the Bhikshu heard 
these creatures also contending between themselves wliich 
was the greatest misery in the world, and they also, from 
their various dispositions, assigned the same causes of 
suffering as you have, namely, lust, hunger, anger, and 
fear. Whereupon the Bhikshu explained to them also, as 
I have done to you, that the body, the source of all sor- 
row, is the greatest misery, and therefore the greatest 
happiness is to get rid of tlie body and obtain Xirvana. 
And on this they were able to understand the truth. Xow 
at that time I was the Bhikshu, and ye were the four 
creatures. On hearing this the mendicants were filled 
with holy fear and self-upbraidings, after wliich they were 
able to come to the condition of Eahats. 

( ii8 ) 



I. In days of old, Avlien Buddlia was residing in the Jetavana, 
Yihara, at Sravasti, there were four newly-admitted mendi- 
cants who went together and sat under a plum-tree, in- 
tending to engage themselves in religious contemplation 
(dhyana). At this time the tree was in full bloom, and 
struck by the beautiful colours and the fragrant perfume 
of the blossoms, the conversation of the mendicants took 
the following turn — viz., as to what in all the world was 
most worthy of love as a source of pleasure. Then one of 
them said, " I think the greatest happiness in the world 
is during some moonlight night in spring, when all the 
trees are in bloom, to wander forth in the country, and 
take one's pleasure without constraint," Another said, 
" I think the highest pleasure is in joining in some family 
social gathering, and enjoying the feast and the wine, the 
music and the dancing." Another said, "I think the 
highest happiness is to possess such funds of wealth as to 
enable one to procure whatever the heart desires, whether 
it be chariots or horses, clothing or ornaments, such as 
would make one, on going into the world, the admiration 
and envy of all beholders." The fourth said, "And I 
think the highest happiness to be to possess a wife as 
beautiful as possible, and to see her clad in all the choicest 
robes, anointed with the rarest unguents, and always 
ready for the indulgence of love." JSTow Buddha, per- 
ceiving that these men were capable of conversion, but 
had not yet arrived at a knowledge of the impermanency of 


tlie six objects of desire, immediately, with a sigli, addressed 
the four men, and asked them, "What is the subject of 
your discourse, as you sit here together beneath this tree ? " 
On this they told him truthfully what each one's idea of 
happiness was. And then Buddha rejoined, " Let there 
be an end of such discourse, for all these things (which 
you desire) are the causes of (way of) sorrow, misfortune, 
fear, and calamity. This is not the way of eternal peace, 
the system of the highest joy. The flowers of spring shall 
fade in autumn, and fall in utter decay before the winter 
cold. All those friends in whose society you place such 
reliance for happiness, ere long shall be scattered and 
separated far and wide. That wealth you prize, and that 
beauty of wife, and those pleasures, alas ! are the causes of 
every misfortune — hatred in families, wreck of body, future 
misery ! Wherefore, Bhikshus ! be sure that the highest 
bliss is to leave the world, to search after supreme wisdom, 
to covet a condition of entire indifference, to desire nought 
for one's self, to aim at Nirvana." And then the World- 
honoured uttered these stanzas : — 

*' From Move (or lust) comes sorrow, from lust 
comes fear ; where there is no lust (or, no ground 
for lust), what sorrow, what fear can there be ? 
From pleasure comes sorrow, from pleasure comes 
fear ; where there is no ground for pleasure, what 
grief or fear can there be ? From covetousness 
(greed) comes sorrow, from greed comes fear ; where 
one is free from covetousness, there can be no sorrow 
or fear. But to be greedy to fulfil perfectly the re- 
c[uirements (moral rules) of the Law — to be truthful 
in everything (or, to be perfectly truthful), to be 
modest in everything, to conduct his own business 
(to order himself) according to what is right — this 

^ Comi^are vers. 212, 213, ss. of the Pali. 


is to lay a foundation of love from all. The idea 
of pleasure not yet produced, liis thoughts and 
Avords composed, his mind unaffected by any be- 
wilderment of love, he indeed shall mount above 
(or cut off) the Stream." ^ 

[Having uttered these words, Buddha explained that in 
days gone by there was a King who, having entertained foiu' 
other neighbouring Kings, and indulged them in every 
pleasure, similar questions to the above arose amongst 
them, and at last the King w^ho was the host explained 
the matter as Buddha had done, on which occasion the 
four Kings were the four Bhikshus, and the chief King 
was Buddha himselfj 

1 He is called " uddhamsotas " (qui sublime fertur) F. 

( i^i ; 



I . In days of old, when Buddlia was residing in tlie Gridhra- 
kuta Mount, near Eajagriha, then Devadatta, in concert 
with Ajatasatru Eaja, contrived a plan for the destruction 
of the Teacher and his followers. The plan was this : — 
That the King should prohibit the people of the town 
from giving anything in charity to the community, and so, 
when they had found their begging excursion through the 
streets ineffective, that then the King should ask them all 
to an entertainment at the palace. Meantime Devadatta, 
having intoxicated 500 elephants, was to let them loose 
on the Teacher and his followers, and so destroy them all. 
Accordingly, the invitation was given and accepted by 
Buddha, and so on the morrow they entered the city as 
agreed upon. On this the elephants, having been let 
loose, with upraised trunks, came bellowing down on the 
crowd, on which the 500 Eahats who followed Buddha 
rose into the air (and flew away), but Buddha, with 
Ananda by his side, checked the fury of the beasts, who 
now came and bowed down, and went before the Teacher 
perfectly subdued. On this Buddha, raising the five 
fingers of his hand, caused the appearance of five lions, 
who uttered their roar, whilst the earth shook, and the 
elephants lay down affrighted on the ground. Hereupon 
Buddha and his followers proceeded to the King's palace, 
and after listening to the confession of the King, Buddha 
uttered these stanzas : — 


" Amonorst men there is no one who is not 
blamed, from old time till now.-^ Since they blame 
the man of many words, they blame the patient and 
quiet man ; they also blame the man who seeks the 
happy medium ; there is always blame in the world. 
Those who desire to find fault with the ric^hteous 
(holy) man are never able to discriminate with 
impartiality (take a middle course) ; they blame him 
entirely or they praise him entirely, but it is all 
done from some false idea of profit or fame. 2 But 
he whom the enlightened and wise praise, and whom 
they consider and call upright and good, a man of 
true wisdom and innocent life, without any ground 
for censure in himself, as a Eahat for purity, there 
is no blame for him — such an one the gods them- 
selves must admire, even Brahma and Sakra must 
praise such an one." 

Having concluded these stanzas, the World-honoured 
One related this anecdote : — " There was in days gone by 
a certain King, who loved above all things the flesh of the 
wild goose for his daily food. Consequently he used to 
keep a hunter (or fowler) for the express purpose of 
snaring these birds, and providing flesh for the royal 
table. One day the fowler having gone out for this pur- 
pose, there came a flock of geese, 500 in number, with 
their king at their head, and alighted in search of food 
just where the snares were set. In consequence the king 
of the birds was trapped, and remained entangled in the 
toils. Then the rest, in consternation, flew round and 
round the place, but would not leave it. One of the geese 
in particular kept flying close by the net, and, undaunted 
by the arrows of the fowler, kept uttering piteous cries, 

^ Compare ver. 227 of the Pali. ^ These verses are very obscure. 

ANGER. 123 

whilst the drops of blood (from her wounds) kept falling 
on the ground, and so from morn till eve she continued to 
act. Then the fowler, moved with compassion, liberated 
the king of the birds, and joyfully he flew away to rejoin 
the flock. On relating this to the King, he highly approved 
of what he had done in liberating the bird. Now at that 
time, Buddha said, I was the king of the wdld geese, 
Ananda was the faithful bird that would not leave me, 
you, O King ! were the King of the country, and the 
huntsman was Devadatta, who has ever sought to do me 
harm (but on this occasion I do not withhold from him 
some portion of praise for his humane conduct) [such at 
least appears to be the moral of the story]." 

( 1^4 ) 



I. There was once a man who had no brothers, but only one 
little son, who was much beloved by both his parents. 
They procured for him means of instruction, and fondly 
hoped that he would be an honour to their house. But, 
alas ! he was careless and negligent, and learned nothing. 
In consequence of this his parents took him to their home, 
and hoped he would be useful in the management of the 
house. But he was idle and dirty in his ways, and alto- 
gether a grief to them. In consequence of this he was 
slighted by all the neighbours, and became an object of 
contempt amongst his friends, and almost hateful to his 
parents. Deeply touched by this, he sought some comfort 
in religious exercises, but found no help in all his penances 
and prayers to the gods. At last, hearing that Buddha was 
the all- wise Teacher who could meet the necessities of his 
case, he came to him and begged his help. To whom 
Buddha replied, " If you would find comfort in my society, 
the first thing for you to learn is purity of conduct. Go 
back, therefore, to your home, and learn to obey your 
parents, recite your prayers, be diligent in your daily 
occupations, let no love of ease tempt you to neglect 
cleanliness of person or decency of dress ; and then, having 
learned this, come back to me, and you may perhaps be 
allowed to enter into the companionship of my followers." 
And then the World-honoured added these stanzas : — 

'^ Absence^ of (daily) prayer is the disease of 

^ Compare ver. 241 of the Pali. 


(daily) conversation (words). Want of diligence is 
the disease of a liouseliold. Want of bccomitior 
dignity is tlie disease of manner (outward appear- 
ance). Carelessness is the disease of business. 
Stiuginess is the disease of charity. Vice is the 
disease of daily conduct. Both now and hereafter 
an evil Eule of life (Law) is an everlasting disease 
(taint). But the disease of all diseases, than wdiich 
none is worse, is ignorance.^ He who is wise 
(enlightened) should free himself from this. Then, 
Bhikshus ! there is no disease." 

The man having heard these words, and perceiving that 
ignorance (in the sense of " folly," or " infatuation ") was 
at the bottom of all his misfortunes, returned to his father's 
house, and gave himself up to obey and to work ; he paid 
respect to his teacher, and was constant in the recitation 
of the Scriptures, and in all respects ordered his life dili- 
gently and circumspectly, and after three years returned 
to Buddha, and having paid homage to him, related how 
he had changed his life, and now besought admission into 
his society. On this the World-honoured One addressed 
him in these words, " Welcome, youth ! " and at once, 
his hair falling off, he became a Shaman, and by an inward 
effort of mind arrived at a knowledge of the four truths, 
and became after a day's perseverance a complete Eahat. 

1 Moha, i.e., delusion ; not avidyd. The Pali text gives avijjd, however. 

( 126 ) 



I . There was once a very old Braliman, called Sa-che (Sacha 
or Satya) Nirgrantha, celebrated for his aciiteness in dis- 
cussion. He had 500 disciples, and all of them were so 
self-opinionated with regard to their superior learning that 
they used to clothe themselves with iron plates, lest their 
wisdom should overflow and run to waste (sic). Now 
when Sacha heard that Buddha had come into the world, 
and was converting men by his superior wisdom, he was 
filled with jealousy, and could not rest at night from very 
envy, and therefore, addressing his disciples, he said, 
" I hear that the Shaman Gotama professes to be a Buddha. 
I will go and ask him a few questions, and make him blush 
for shame when he finds he cannot answer them." Accord- 
ingly, he with his followers went to the Jetavana (Vihara), 
and as they stood without seeing the glory of Buddha's 
person, like the sun when he first comes forth in his 
strength, they were overpowered and confused by their 
feehngs, and so passing through the door they came before 
Buddha, and did him reverence. On this Buddha requested 
them to be seated. Beins^ so seated, the Mrsfrantha asked 
Buddha as follows : — " Who is the just man ? Who is the 
learned man ? Wlio is the reverend man ? What is true 
beauty and grace ? ^ What is a Shaman ? Who is a true 
Bhikshu ? and who is the truly enlightened ? and who the 
obedient man (who respectfully observes the rules of moral 

Or, Who is the upright man? {twan ching). 


conduct) ? If you are able, be pleased to answer these 
questions for the sake of my followers." 

On this the World-honoured, perceiving exactly how 
the case lay, answered in these stanzas : — 

*^ The man who is always anxious and desirous 
to learn, who walks uprightly, who ponders on and 
considers the character of precious wisdom, this 
man is called Just (^.e., Eighteous ; one who has 
attained the way, or Bodhi). And who is the man 
of Knowledge ? He who depends not on any fine 
distinction of words — who is free from fear and from 
apprehension, who stands by what is right — he is 
the man of Knowledge. And who is the Reverend 
man (aged) ? Not he who has come to old age 
(sexegenarian) — his form bent, his hair white — for 
with all that he may be but a fool. But he who 
jDonders on and inquires into the Law (the Dharma), 
who regulates and restrains his conduct, (is full of) 
love and virtue, who is able to penetrate into 
hidden secrets, and is pure — this man is rightly 
called 'Reverend.' And who is the graceful and 
jDerfect man ? Not he who possesses beauty of 
form like the flowers (that charm us) ; not he who 
covets and longs for the empty vanities of personal 
adornment ; not he whose words and conduct are 
opposed to one another ; but he who is able to 
give up every vicious way, who has got rid of it 
from the very root, who is enlightened without a 
remnant of hatred — this man is truly graceful and 
upright (or respectable, i.e., admirable in conduct).-^ 

1 The phrase tiGan ching properly means "upright in conduct." 


And who is the Shaman ? Not he who is shaven 
perforce, who speaks untruth, and covets pos- 
session, or who is a slave of desire like the rest 
of men ; but he who is able to put an end to (to 
compose) every wicked (desire), to silence every per- 
sonal preference, to quiet his mind, and put an end 
to thought — this man is called a Shaman. And 
who is called a Bhikshu ? Not he who at stated 
times begs his food ; not he who walks unright- 
eously (heretically), but hopes to be considered a 
disciple, desiring to establish a character (as a reli- 
gious person), and that is all ; but he who gives up 
every cause (karma) of guilt, and who lives conti- 
nently and purely, wdio by wisdom is able to crush 
every evil (inclination) — this man is a true Bhik- 
shu. And who is the truly enlightened (or the 
wise man) ? Not he who is simply mute, whilst 
the busy work of his mind is impure — merely 
accommodating himself to the outer rule and 
that is all; but he whose heart is without pre- 
ference (indifferent), whose inward life is pure 
and spiritual (empty), perfectly unmoved and 
dead to this or that (person or thing) — this man 
is called an inwardly enlightened man (Muni ?) 
And who is a man of B6dhi (an Ariya or ' elected 
one ') ? Not he who saves the life of all things, but 
he who is filled with universal benevolence, who 
has no malice in his heart — he is a man of Bodhi. 
And the man who observes the Law is not he who 
talks much, but one who keeps his body (himself) 
in subjection to the Law (Religion), although he 
be a plain, untaught man, always guarding the way 


(of truth) without any forgetfulness — this man is 
an observer of the Law^ (i.e., Dhammattho)." 

On hearing these words, Sacha Mrgrantha and his 500 
followers were all filled with joy, and became followers of 
Buddha (Shamans). The Nirgrantha arrived at the con- 
dition (lieart) of a Bodhisatwa, the others became Kahats. 

^ ^ These verses vigree generally with the Pali. 

( 130 ) 



I. In days of old there was a Brahman, who when young 
had left his home for the purpose of religious seclusion, and 
who remained a solitary student till he was sixty years of 
age, but even after this long period he was unable to 
arrive at supreme wisdom (Bodhi). Xow, according to 
the law of the Brahmans, if a man at sixty years of age 
has not reached wisdom, it is his duty to return to his 
home and marry a wife. Accordingly, the man having so 
done, there was born to him a very graceful boy, who 
when seven years of age, being already deeply read in the 
books of his religion, and possessed of wonderful dialectic 
skill, was suddenly struck by a fatal disease and died. 
The father, overwhelmed by sorrow, gave himself up to 
immoderate grief, and was quite unable to control himself. 
He threw himself on the corpse of his child, and lay there 
as one dead. On recovering himself, the child's body was 
enshrouded and coffined — the father having been remon- 
strated with by his relatives and those of his caste — and 
finally taken without the city for interment. On this 
occasion the Brahman began to reflect with himself thus — 
" What use is it thus giving way to tears ? It is not of 
any service ; but I will go at once to the abode of Chen- 
lo-wang (Yamaraja), and beg him humbly to give me back 
my child alive." On this the Brahman, having gone 
through certain religious rites and offered flowers and 
incense, departed from his home, and wherever he came 
he asked of all he met whether they knew where Yamaraja 

THE WAY. 131 

held his court and ruled. After wandering onwards thus 
for several thousand lis, he came to a deep mountain pass, 
where he met with a party of Brahmans who had acquired 
supreme wisdom. He inquired again of these if they 
could tell him where Yamaraja ruled and held his court. 
To this they replied, " And why do you, honourable sir, 
desire to know ? " On this he told them his sad grief, and 
explained his intention to beg back his child from the God 
of the lower world. Then all the Brahmans, pitying his 
self-delusion, rephed — " No mortal man can reach the place 
where Yama reigns ; but about 400 lis to the westward of 
this place there is a great valley, in the midst of which 
there is a city. In this city the gods and heavenly spirits, 
who sometimes dwell among men, take up their abode, 
and Yama, on the eighth day of the month, constantly visits 
the spot. By going there, and practising a strictly religious 
mode of life, you may, honourable sir, see the King of the 
Dead." Then the Brahman, rejoiced to hear this news, 
departed, and arriving at this valley, lo ! in the midst of 
it he saw a beautiful city with palaces, and towers, and 
residences, like those in the Trayastrihshas Heaven. Then 
coming before the gate, he began to burn incense, and 
recite his religious formularies (Mantras), with a view to 
gain admission and obtain sight of Yamaraja. At length 
he was admitted into the dread presence of the King, and, 
on being asked his wish, he related his case as before. To 
him the King thus rej^lied — " What you ask, honourable 
sir, is pious and good of you. Your son is now in the 
Eastern garden disporting himself there; take him and 
go." On this the Brahman forthwith hastened to the place, 
and there he saw his loved child playing with other 
children. He immediately ran to him, and embracing 
him, with the tears coursing down his cheeks, exclaimed — 
" How can I forget you, my child, over whom I have 
watched so long and lovingly ! Piemember you not me, 
my child, your father ? Do you not recall our grief as 
we tended you in your sickness, my child ? " But the boy 


repelled tlie embrace of tlie Brahman, and upbraided him 
for using such foolish terms as father and child, who perish 
as the grass. "In my present state," he added, " I know no 
such words, and I am free from such delusive thoughts." 
On this the Brahman, with many tears, departed ; and as 
he went he bethought himself of the Shaman Gotama, and 
he resolved to go to him and lay bare his grief, and seek 
for some consolation. Accordingly he arrived at the Jeta- 
vana, and having paid the usual homage, he explained his 
circumstances, and how his child had refused to come back 
with him. To him replied the World-honoured — " Truly 
you are self-deluded and foolish, for when the spirit of a 
dead man departs, know you not that it forthwith receives 
another bodily form, and then all the relative terms of 
father, son, wife, mother, are at an end, just as a guest who 
leaves his lodmnsf has done with it as thouoh it were a 
thing of the past ? Sad is your case, and much to be 
pitied, not to know that such changes will ever go on till 
you reach a condition of true wisdom, and give up, once 
for all, every thought about such worldly things as these. 
In this way alone can you make an end of future birth 
and death, and become for ever free." And then he added 
these stanzas : — 

" Men concern themselves about the matters of 
wife and child ; they perceive not the inevitable 
law of disease (and death), and the end of life which 
quickly comes, as a bursting torrent (sweepiDg all 
before it) in a moment/ Then neither father or 
mother can save one ; what hope, then, can be 
placed in all one's relatives (kinsfolk) ? At the end 
of life parent and kinsman are as a blind man set to 
look after (keep) a burning lamp. A wise man un- 
derstanding tills should carefully practise himself in 

^ Compare ver. 287 of the Pali. 

THE WAY. 133 

the Eiiles of Eeligion (moral life) ; lie slioiild walk 
diligently so as to help (save) the world, with a 
view to destroy completely (the sources of) sorrow, 
to get away from the seething whirlpool (of life and 
death) ; as the wind drives away the clouds, so 
should he strive to destroy all remnant of thought 
(consciousness, ' samjna) ;' this is the office of know- 
ledge. Wisdom is superior to all worldly (devices) 
— it makes a man indifferent to its joys, and ren- 
ders him unconcerned about its business ; whoever 
receives this true instruction shall get rid for ever of 
renewed birth and death." 

On hearing these verses the Brahman at once obtained 
enlightenment and perceived the inconstancy of life ; that 
wife and child are but as the guest who leaves the house ; 
and so having paid reverence to Buddha, he besought per- 
mission to enter the community, on which Buddha having 
welcomed him, he at once became a Shaman, and eventu- 
ally arrived at the condition of a Kahat. 

( 134 } 



I . In days of old when Buddha was residing in the country 
of Sravasti, preaching his doctrine for the conversion of 
the various orders of creatures (gods, nagas, men, &c.), it 
happened that the king of the country, who was called 
Prasenajita, had gone on three occasions with his mini- 
sters to hear Buddha's discourses. Now at this time the 
king had given way to much self-indulgence in the way 
of luxurious living and other gratifications of the senses, 
in consequence of which he had become sleek and fat, and 
being so, he suffered from various ailments, such as flatu- 
lency and excessive drowsiness and heaviness, so that he 
could scarcely rise up without inconvenience, and was 
always more or less a sufferer from discomfort. 

In this condition he once came to the place where 
Buddha was, and leaning on the arms of his attendants, 
he took his seat, and with clasped hands addressed the 
teacher thus : — " World-honoured ! pardon, I pray, my 
want of due respect in not saluting you as I ought, 
but I know not what ailment possesses me that I am 
become so fat ! and it is this that pains me so that I 
can pay none of the usual respects to your person." 
To which the Lord replied — " Maharaja ! there are five 
things which always produce the condition of which you 
complain: 1st, constantly eating; 2d, love of sleep; 3d, 
love of pleasure; 4th, absence of thought; 5th, want of 
occupation. These are the things that cause corpulency 

1 Translated "Miscellaneous" ivom the Tali paJchinako. 


and grossness of habit ; if you would escape from tins con- 
dition, then you must give up your luxurious living, and 
afterwards you will become thin again. And then the 
Lord added these stanzas : — 

^^ A man ought to recollect and consider at every 
meal to exercise self-control, and thus avoid those 
aches and pains to which we are constantly liable ; 
by allowing time for taking food, he causes his life 
to be prolonged." 

On hearing these verses, the king was so gratified that 
he ordered his chief cook to remember them, and to recite 
them in his presence before and after every meal. By 
doing thus the king was able to restrain himself, and 
gradually recovered his lightness of body and animal 
spirits, at which he was so rejoiced, that one day he went 
afoot to the place where Buddha was, and coming into his 
presence he paid him homage. On the Lord requesting 
him to be seated, he inquired, "Where, king, are your 
horses and chariot, how is it that you have come here 
afoot ? " On which the king answered with joy — '' By 
attending to what Buddha on a former occasion taught 
me, I have become light of body again, so that I find no 
dif&culty whatever in walking as I have to the place 
w^here we are now assembled." Then Buddha addressed 
the king as follows : — " Maharaja ! it is because men do not 
consider the impermanence of things in the world that 
matters are as they are. They nourish and cherish their 
bodies and their appetites, not remembering even their 
own comfort (happiness) in so doing, and thus the man 
dies and his spirit departs, whilst his body decays in 
the tomb. The wise man nourishes his soul (spirit), the 
foolish man nourishes his body. If you can understand 
this, then you may prepare yourself to receive the sacred 
teaching (of my doctrine)," and then the Lord added these 
verses : — 


'^ How impermanent is man ! lie grows old as 
the stalled ox, fat, and fleshy, and strong, but lie 
lias no saving wisdom ; without thought of life and 
death, and the perpetual troubles involved in them, 
thinking only of the body and its wants, and thus 
adding to his sorrows without prospect of escape. 
But the wise man understanding (the cause of) 
sorrow, on this account lets his body go ; he destroys 
all thought (about it), he cuts off desire, and thus 
making an end of all lustful appetites, he also puts 
an end to renewed birth." 

The kinsj havincr heard these words and understood 
them, at once received enlightenment, and others who 
heard them in great numbers, arrived at the " eyes of the 
law" (religious illumination). 

2. In days of old there were seven mendicants, who to- 
gether resorted to the mountain wilds for the purpose of 
acquiring supreme wisdom. After twelve years' fruitless 
effort, they began to reason amongst themselves and say : 
" To acquire supreme wisdom is very hard ; to mortify 
one's body and cramp one's limbs, and to endure coM and 
pain without interval, and to beg one's food and receive 
such scant suppHes, all this is hard. To persevere in the 
path (of duty) so as to avoid any fault (sin) is hard. Why 
then do we any longer consume away our life in the moun- 
tain wilds ? Surely this course is not so agreeable as to 
return home and establish our families, and marrv wives 
and have children, and enjoy ourselves to the end of our 
days." On this the seven men agreed to leave the moun- 
tains, and so went on their way homeward. 

Now Buddha, knowing their case, and perceiving there 
was a possibility of their salvation, out of pity to them, 
knowing that their impatience in religious exercises would, 
if allowed to go on, end in their ruin, transformed himself 


into the appearance of a Shanmn, and transporting him- 
self to the midst of a narrow defile, met them as they 
came along. And then he asked them, " After so long a 
trial in searching for supreme wisdom, why are ye leaving 
(the mountains, and giving up the quest) ? " To wliich 
they replied, " To gain wisdom {i.e., complete illumination, 
or Bodhi) is difficult. To attend diligently (in extirpating) 
the root of sorrow and sin is difficult. To go a-begging 
through the town, and receive scant charity, is hard. And 
to live here in the mountains, with no one to nourish us, 
in constant discomfort to the end of one's days, this is un- 
bearable ; and we are therefore going home to engage in 
our worldly occupations and get wealth, and then when 
we are old we will give ourselves up to seek for supreme 

The Shaman replied, " Stand still awhile, and listen to 
me. Man's life is inconstant ; a morning and an evening, 
and it may be gone. Although the way of religion is 
hard, yet it is but the sorrow first which leads to the joy 
which follows. To live in the world ^ is also hard ; through 
endless as^es to have the cares of wife and child, without 
interval of rest. To live in community, and to take the 
vows of equality in all earthly goods, looking forward to 
and anticipating future happiness without interval of 
sorrow, this is difficult. The present life is but a scene of 
constant struggle against disease and hurts; wherever 
there is bodily existence, there is pain and sorrow. He 
only who has faith, and lives religiously (observing the 
moral rules), his heart intent on gaining supreme wisdom, 
with no interval of carelessness or remission of duty, to 
him alone there is an end, an eternal end, of misery." 
On this the Shaman resumed the glorious appearance of 
Buddha, and spake these stanzas : — 

'' To aim at supreme wisdom and to give up 
sin is hard ; but to live in the world as a worldly 

^ That is, a secular life. 


man is also hard, i To dwell in a religious com- 
munity on terms of perfect equality as to worldly 
goods is difficult ; but difficult beyond comparison 
is the possession of worldly goods (or, ' it is diffi- 
cult not to transgress in having such goods'). To 
beg one's food as a mendicant is hard, but what 
can a man do who does not restrain himself ? By 
perseverance the duty becomes natural, and in the 
end there is no desire to have it otherwise. Hav- 
ing faith, then duty is easily accomplished ; from 
following in the path of duty {i.e., moral duty) a 
man greatly enriches himself, and from this, more- 
over, it results that wherever he is, by whomsoever 
seen, he is respected (cherished). Sitting alone, 
occupying one place for sleep, ceaselessly pursuing 
one line of conduct (walk, or action), jealously 
guarding one upright (or correct) state of mind, 
there will be of necessity joy to such a man (though) 
livinor in the forest." 

On hearing these words the seven mendicants, filled 
with shame on account of their behaviour, bowed them- 
selves down at tlie Lord's feet, and returning to the 
mountain wilds, and continuing to guard " one perfect 
heart," they attained supreme wisdom, and became 

1 There is a general agreement here with ver. 302 of the Pali. 

( 139 ) 



I . In olden time there was in tlie country of Sravasti a cer- 
tain Brahman teacher called Purana Kasyapa (Pou-lan- 
ka-ye), who had five hundred followers, who went about 
the country with their master, and were greatly respected 
by the King and people. Now it came to pass that 
after Buddha had attained supreme wisdom, and when 
with his disciples he had come to Sravasti, that, on 
account of his personal dignity, and the character of his 
teaching, the Kiog and people paid him great respect. 
On this Kasyapa was full of jealousy, and he determined 
to destroy (overthrow) the World-honoured in argument, 
and cause his death. Accordingly he went, accompanied 
by his followers, to meet the King, and having found him, 
he spake thus : " In former days, Maharaja, you and the 
people used to attend to me as a teacher, and supply my 
wants ; but since this Sramana Gotama has arrived here, 
who falsely says he has become enlightened (Buddha), you 
have left me, to attend on him. I desire, therefore, that 
you would allow a discussion between us, and whoever is 
defeated in argument let him be put to death." The 
King being pleased with the proposition, submitted it to 
the World-honoured One, who consented to meet Kasyapa, 
as he wished, at the expiration of seven days. Accord- 
ingly the King prepared a place standing eastward of the 
city, smooth and wide, on which he erected two lofty 
thrones, and adorned them with all sorts of flags and 
decorations. On these the two disputants were to sit, 


with their adherents beneath, and the King and his court 
between the two. The day having come, Kasyapa and his 
followers arrived first, and having ascended his throne, lo ! 
an evil spirit, knowing the envy that burned in the heart 
of the Brahman, caused a sudden storm to arise, w^hich 
blew down the seat which he occupied, and filled the 
whole arena with dust and flying sand. But now Buddha 
arrived, and having taken his place, the King came for- 
ward and entreated him by his power to convert the 
people to his doctrine, and confute the heretical views of 
his opponent. On this the Lord ascended into the air, 
and exhibited his glory in causing fire and water to pro- 
ceed from his body ; and after various miraculous changes 
in his appearance, he returned once more to his seat. Then 
the Nagas and spirits of the air caused flowers and plea- 
sant perfumes to fall, whilst melodious chants were heard 
in the sky, and the earth and heavens were shaken. Then 
Purana Kasyapa, knowing that he had no real claim to the 
character of a supreme teacher, hung down his head in 
shame, and dared not lift up his eyes. On this a diamond- 
Litchavi (hero of Vaisali), raising his mace, from the head 
of which proceeded sparks of fire, over Kasyapa, asked 
him why he did not also display such wonderl'ul changes 
as those just witnessed ? "WTiereupon Kasyapa and his 
followers fled in every direction, and Buddha and his dis- 
ciples returned to the Jetavana Vihara, in Sravasti. After 
this Kasyapa, having met an old female disciple, who ridi- 
culed him for attempting to dispute with Buddha, he came 
to the banks of the river, and told his disciples that he 
was now going to ascend to the heaven of Brahma, and if 
after casting himself into the river he did not return, that 
they might know he had ascended to that heaven. Ac- 
cordingly he threw himself in, and not returning, his dis- 
ciples concluded he had gone to heaven ; and they also, 
desiring to join him there, threw themselves one by one 
into the river, and were lost — going to hell. Then Buddha 
explained that the two great crimes of Kasyapa wliich led 

HELL, 141 

to his destruction were these — ist, pretending falsely to 
have arrived at supreme wisdom; 2d, having wickedly 
slandered Buddha. And for these two sins he and his 
followers have gone to perdition ; and then he repeated 
these stanzas : — 

*' He who, by false assumptions, seeks reward ; 
he who, having done a thing, has not in so doing 
acted uprightly ; he who has maliciously slandered 
an innocent man, and w^ould control the world by 
(such) false pretences — that man, dragged down by 
his guilt, must fall into hell ; as a man confined in 
a stronghold outside a city, guarded wdthout and 
within, cannot escape, such is his lot. Carefully 
guarding one's heart, no unholy thought can arise ; 
but failing in this, misery accrues, and in the end 
that man goes to j)erdition." 

On this Buddha relates an anecdote of live hundred 
monkeys with their king, who had quarrelled with another 
king and his followers, and who, being unable to sustain 
the conflict, ended their lives as Kasyapa and his followers 
had done {i.e., by jumping into the sea in search of a beau- 
tiful mountain full of delicious fruits, &c., and on the king 
not returning, his attendants all followed his example, and 
perished). These five hundred monkeys, Buddha ex- 
plained, were Kasyapa and his followers. 

The King having heard these words, was filled with joy, 
and departed. 

( H2 ) 



I . In days of old, before Eahula had attained to supreme 
wisdom, his natural disposition being somewhat low and 
disorderly, his words were not always marked by love of 
truth. On one occasion Buddha had ordered him to go to 
the Elen-tai (Ghanda or Ghanta ?) Vihara, and there re- 
main guarding his mouth (tongue), and governing his 
thoughts, at the same time diligently studying (or ob- 
serving) the rules of conduct laid down in the Scriptures. 
Eahula, having heard the command, made his obeisance 
and went. For ninety days he remained in deep shame 
and penitence. At length Buddha repaired to the place, 
and showed himself; on seeing him, Eahula was filled 
with joy, and reverently bowed down and worshipped him. 
After this, Buddha having taken the seat provided for 
him, he desired Eahula to fill a water-basin with water 
and bring it to him, and wash his feet. Having done so, 
and the washing being over, Buddha asked Eahula if the 
water so used was now fit for any purpose of domestic use 
(drinking, &c.) ; and on Eahula replying in the negative, 
because the water was defiled with dust and dirt, Buddha 
added : " And such is your case, for although you are my 
son, and the grandchild of the King, although you have 
voluntarily given up everything to become a Shaman, 
nevertheless you are unable to guard your tongue from 
untruth and the defilement of loose conversation, and so 
you are like this defiled water — useful for no further pur- 


pose." And again he asked him, after the water had been 
thrown away, whether the vessel was now fit for holding 
w^ater for drink ; to which Eahula replied, " N'o," for the 
vessel is still defiled, and is known as an unclean thincr, 
and therefore not used for any purpose such as that indi- 
cated ; to wdiich Buddha again replied, " And such is your 
case, by not guarding your tongue, &c., you are known 
and recognised as unfit for any high purpose, although 
you profess to be a Shaman." And then once more lift- 
ing the empty basin on to his foot, and whirling it round 
and round, he asked Eahula if he were not afraid lest it 
should fall and be broken ; to which Eahula replied that 
he had no such fear, for the vessel was but a cheap and 
common one, and therefore its loss would be a matter of 
small moment. "And such is your case," again said 
Buddha, " for though you are a Shaman, yet being unable 
to guard your mouth or your tongue, you are destined, as 
a small and insignificant thing, to be w^hirled in the end- 
less eddies of transmigration — an object of contempt 
to all the Wise." Eahula being filled with shame, 
Buddha addressed him once more : " Listen, and I will 
speak to you in a parable. There was in old time the 
king of a certain country who had a large and very power- 
ful elephant, able to overpower by its own strength five 
hundred smaller elephants. This king, being about to go 
to war with some rebellious dependency, brought forth the 
iron armour belonging to the elephant, and directed the 
master of the animal to put it on him, to wit, tw^o sharp- 
pointed swords on his tusks, two iron hooks (scythes) on 
his ears, a crooked spear on each foot, an iron club (or 
ball) attached to his tail; and to accompany him w^ere 
appointed nine soldiers as escort. Then the elephant- 
master was rejoiced to see the creature thus equipped, and 
trained him above all things to keep his trunk w^ell coiled 
up, knowing that an arrow piercing tlmt in the midst must 
be fatal. But lo ! in the middle of the battle the ele- 
phant, uncoiling his trunk, sought to seize a sword with it. 


On wliicli tlie master was affriglited, and, in consultation 
with tlie king and his ministers, it was agreed that he 
should no more be brought into the battle-field." In con- 
tinuation, Buddha said : " Eahula 1 if men committing the 
nine faults only guard their tongue as this elephant was 
trained to guard his trunk, all would be well. Let them 
guard against the arrow that strikes in the middle ! let 
them keep their mouth, lest they die, and fall into the 
misery of future births in the three evil paths I " And 
then he added these stanzas : — 

" I am like the fighting elephant, without any 
fear of the middle arrow (the arrow wounding the 
middle part). By sincerity and truth I escape the 
unprincipled man (lawless man). Like the ele- 
phant, well subdued and quiet, permits the king 
to mount on his trunk (offers his trunk for the 
king to ascend), thus tamed is the reverend man, 
lie also endures truthfully and in faith." 

Eahula, hearing these words, was filled with sorrow for 
his careless disregard of his words, and gave himself up to 
renewed exertion, and so became a Eahat. 

2. In days of old, when Buddha was residing in the Jeta- 
vana of Sravasti, preaching his doctrine for the sake of 
angels and men, at this time there was a certain noble- 
man, a householder (grihapati), named Atidharma (ho-ti- 
wan), who, having come to the place where Buddha was, 
after the customary homage, stood on one side and said : 
" World-honoured ! whenever I undertake any religious 
duty, such as making an offering or other service, I feel 
harassed and oppressed by some selfish feeling or other, 
that destroys my peace of mind. Would that of your 
great love you would explain this." Then the Lord bade 
him sit down, and forthwith asked him his name, and 
whence he came. On this, again prostrating himself, he 


told liis name, and said that in the time of the former lvin<T 
he had been an elephant-tamer. Buddha then asked him 
what were the rules for elephant-taming, and what the 
instruments employed ? On this he replied, " There are 
three things we use in this work — ist, an iron-hooked in- 
strument, for holding the mouth and subduing it ; 2d, one 
lor depriving the creature of food, and keeping it low ; 3d, a 
large staff, for the purpose of beating it. By these means 
we gain the mastery over it, and subdue it." Again 
Buddha asked, " And of these three things, which is the 
most useful (or important) ? " to which he replied, " The 
hooked-iron that holds the mouth ; this is the most effec- 
tive, for by means of this discipline the creature is tamed 
so as to permit the King to mount on its back, and is 
guided and directed without difficulty in battle." Again 
Buddha asked, " if this was the generally accepted method 
of taming elephants, and if there was any other ? " and on 
the elephant-tamer replying in the negative, Buddha 
added, "As you tame the elephant, so you may tame 
yourself;" and on his inquiring further as to the mean- 
ing of this, Buddha continued : " elephant-tamer ! I 
have also three things by which I subdue all men, and by 
which each man may subdue himself, and so arrive at the 
highest condition of unselfishness (luoit-wei). And what 
are these three? ist, by self-control over the tongue, 
leading one always to observe the truth ; 2d, by love, 
to persuade the hard and obstinate; 3d, by wisdom, to 
destroy the influence of ignorance and doubt. By these 
three I subdue all men, and enable them to escape the 
path of ruin, and to arrive at a condition free from sorrow 
and any entanglement of renewed birth and death — per- 
fectly unselfish and indifferent (wou-wei)." And then the 
World-honoured added these lines : — 

Like tlie elej)bant which is called ''U-ts'ai" 
(Dhammapalaka ?)! is difficult to hold and to tame, 

1 Compare A'er, •^24 of tlie Pali. 



and when bound does not eat a morsel, and only 
longs to be free ; so this mind of mine, in its 
natural state, went wandering at large, and ever 
seeking a resting-place, but now I have subdued it, 
and I can hold it, as the master with the hook 
holds the elephant. To be glad in the possession 
of Eeason (Bodhi), and not to let it escape, to be 
able at any time to hold in and control the mind, 
this is to be saved from bodily suffering, as the 
elephant escapes from the ditch into which he has 

The Grihapati, on hearing these words, was led to seri- 
ous reflection, and eventually attained to a condition of 
enlightenment, whilst countless others were converted to 
the truth. 

( 147 ) 



I. Ix days of old when Buddha was residing in the Gri- 
dhrakiita mountain, near Eajagriha, preaching the inesti- 
mable doctrine for the sake of angels and men, there was 
a certain man who, liaving made up his mind to leave his 
family and become a recluse, came to the place where 
Buddha was, and desired permission to enter the com- 
munity (church). On this Buddha required him (after 
he had permitted him to become a disciple) to go sit 
beneath a tree in the solitude, and give himself up to 
meditation. On this the Shaman departed into the moun- 
tain wild, more than a hundred lis from the Vihara, and 
there gave himself up to a solitary life. After three years 
of self-denial, his heart being still unsubdued, he desned 
to give up his profession and to return to his home again, 
saying thus to himself, " Tliis life of asceticism is trouble- 
some and painful, and not to be compared with the happi- 
ness derived from domestic society. I will, therefore, 
return to my wife and family and enjoy myself." On this 
he made as though he would leave the mountain and return 
home. Then Buddha, by his omniscience, seeing the con- 
dition of this disciple, and knowing that he had a capa- 
city for salvation, transformed himself into the form of a 
Shaman, and went to meet him on the way. On encoun- 
tering one another, the transformed Shaman addressed the 
other and asked Avhence he came and whether he was 
going. On this they agreed mutually to rest awhile and 
sit down together on a convenient spot (level ground) 


Seated thus, the disappointed Shaman explained to the 
other his condition, and confessed that he was going back 
home from a feeling of failure in his religious exercises. 
!N'ow it happened while he was speaking, that an old 
monkey leaving the tree in which he lived, came down 
into the open and disported himself; then the assumed 
Shaman asked the other, why was this ; to which the 
last replied : " I have often observed this same monkey 
come down and behave himself thus, and the reasons for 
his so doing are two, — ist, he is rejoiced to be free from 
the care of providing for his wife and his belongings ; and 
2dly, he is worn and hurt by constantly climbing the tree 
in which his family live, and so is glad to escape the 
labour of so doim^ : for these two reasons he leaves the 
tree and enjoys himself in the open ground. But mean- 
while, as the two were conversing, the monkey retreated 
from the open space, and re-climbed the tree, on which 
the strange Shaman addressed the other, and asked if he 
perceived this, and how he explained it. On which the 
latter said that it was in consequence of fear and uncer- 
tainty that the monkey had gone back to his home ; on 
which the other rejoined : " Such is the case with your- 
self; it was the anxieties caused by your wife and family 
that first induced you to find release in these mountain 
wilds, but now owing to doubt and uncertainty, you are 
going back to the world, and by so doing you expose 
yourself to all the evil consequences of renewed birth 
and consequent death. Whereupon he added these 
verses : 

^^ As ^ a tree, as long as its root is firm aud safe, 
although cut dowu, still survives and produces 
fruit ; so, unless the remnants of lust are destroyed 
and uprooted, (a man) must return again and agaiil 
to receive sorrow. The monkey, away from the 

^ compare ver. 338 of tlie Pali. 

LUST. 149 

tree, first of all enjoys release, and then returns 
again (to its bondage), such is the case with men, 
they escape from hell and then return to it. Long- 
inoj thouo^hts are like the ever-flowinof waters of a 
river ; giving way to the free enjoyment of indol- 
ence and luxury, the mind like a savage dog seeks 
for continual indulgence, and the man himself 
becomes clouded and unable to see the truth. 
Every thought flowing in the same channel, then 
lusts bind a man as with stronjr rattan bonds. 
The wise man alone is aljle rightly to distinguish 
the truth, he is able to cut off the very root and 
source of his (lustful) thoughts. A man by self- 
indul2:ence becomes sleek and shinino:, his thoughts 
increase like the sprouting tendril, the depth of 
lust cannot be fathomed ; from this ]oroceeds the 
ever-increasing succession of old age and continual 

The Bhikshu beholding the giorious appearance of 
Buddha, and hearing^ the words of the verses he had 
uttered, prostrated himself on the earth in lowest rever- 
ence before hhn, and repenting of his sloth, he assiduously 
practised the rules of Samatha and Vipassina,^ arrived at 
the condition of a Eahat. And all the Devas who had 
heard the words, with joyful thoughts scattered flowers 
before the person of Buddha, as a religious offering, and 
with countless ^ " Sadhus " departed. 

2. In days of old when Buddha was residing at Sravasti, 
and there preaching his doctrine for the good of Devas 
and men, there was residing in the city a certain rich Brah- 
man of a very covetous and niggard disposition, who, from 

1 For the meaning of these terms Buddhists in China), vide Childer's 
(tranquillity and contemplation, the Diet., sub. voc. 

chi kwan of the Tien-tai school of '^ "Sadhu" — an expression of ap- 
proval, as our "Amen." 


a desire to save alms, used to order Lis servant to shut 
his door and fasten his windows whenever he took his 
meals, so that no beo'Sfar should molest him with his im- 
portunities. And so no religious person (Shaman) could 
ever gain admittance, or stand in the presence of this 
Brahman. One day having desired his wife to kill a fowl 
and make a highly savoury dish of the same, they both 
sat down toq-ether to eat it, the doors and the windows 
having first been closed — and between them their little 


child, into whose mouth they both occasionally put scraps 
of the savoury dish. Now Buddha, knowing that there w^as 
a capacity for conversion in this man's case, transformed 
himself into the appearance of a Shaman, and waiting till 
the master of the house had finished his meal he placed him- 
self before his chair, or seat, and recited the usual formula. 
" He who gives little or much (or he who gives a little of his 
abundance) in charity, lays up for himself a great reward." 
The Brahman, raising his head and seeing the Shaman (as 
it seemed), began to abuse him and said, "You call your- 
self a religious mendicant, do you ? and yet have no 
better manners than this, to force yourself into my pre- 
sence when at my meals with my family ? " To which he 
replied, " It is you, my lord, who ought to be ashamed — 
I need not feel shame for begging as a mendicant." The 
Brahman then replied — " And what shame should I feel 
for eating thus with my wife in comfort ? " " You, my 
lord, who have killed your father, and married your 
mother, and thus involved yourself in family disgrace, and 
feel no shame, nevertheless upbraid me and would put me 
to shame for begging a little food," and then he recited 
the followinc^ verses : — 

"" As the sprouting creeper which is not cut off 
(at the root), such is the case of the man who, with 
covetous desire, partakes of food ; ever cherishing 
evil thoughts and multiplying family discords 
(tombs), such is the constant employment of the 

LUST. ' 151 

ingorant man. Hell, iucleed, has its gyves and 
fetters, but the wise man regards not these as cap- 
tivity; the foolish man who is immersed in cares 
about wife and child and their personal adornment, 
he it is who is in real captivity. The wise man re- 
gards lust as the imprisonment of hell, as the hard 
bound fetter from which it is difficult to escape, and 
therefore he desires to separate this and cut it off 
for ever, that being free from any such cares (or, 
desires), he may find rest and peace." -^ 

The Brahman on hearing these words inquired as to 
their meaning, on which the Shaman explained, that in 
former years the bird (cock) which he had just eaten was 
his father, that the little hoy his son had been a Eaksha, 
and had eaten the father, and that his wife had been in 
former days his mother — and thus it was he was involved 
in the utmost diss^race. On hearinsr these words the 
Brahman, filled with fear, besought Buddha, who had now 
assumed his glorious appearance, to instruct him in the 
rules of his society, and finally obtained release and 
entered the first path. 

3. In days of old when Buddha was residing at the Jeta- 
vana Yihara near Sravasti, there was a young Bhikshu, 
who, in going through the streets of the city on a begging 
excursion, cast eyes on a girl of exceeding beauty, and 
was filled with passion for her. Being unable to conquer 
his desire, he fell sick, and was unable to eat or sleep, and 
pined away daily. On this a fellow disciple went to him, 
and asked him how it was he suffered thus, on which the 
first revealed the whole matter to the other, and in the 
end they both went to the place where Buddha was, and 
explained the thing to him. On this Buddha promised to 
find a remedy for the Bhikshu's malady, and forthwith 

^ Compare vers. 345, 346 of the Puli. 


desired liim to accompany liim with his followers to the 
city. On going to the house where the maiden had dwelt, 
they found she had now been dead three days, and the 
house was filled with mourners, who wailed and wept 
incessantly. Then pointing to the offensive corpse, Bud- 
dha asked the Bhikshu, if it was that which had inflamed 
him with passion ? And he then explained how all 
things that exist are equally perishable and inconstant, 
and that only through ignorance of this do men set 
their hearts upon them, and afterwards he added these 
verses : — 

^^ At the sight of beauty the heart is at once 
ensnared, because it considers not the imperman- 
ency of all such appearances. The fool regarding 
the outward form as an excellency, how can he 
know the falseness of the tliino^, for like a silk- 
worm ^ enveloped in its own net (cocoon), so is he 
entangled in his own love of sensual pleasure. 
But the wise man, able to separate himself and 
cast off all this, is no longer entangled, but casts 
away all sorrows. The careless and idle man con- 
siders that such indulgence of sense is not contrary 
to purity, and so going on still indulging such 
thoughts, he is bound as a captive in hell ; but the 
wise man, destroying all thoughts about such 
things, and ever remembering the impurity of such 
indulgence, by this means comes out of captivity, 
and so is able to escape from the grief of repeated 
old a2je and death." 

The youthful Bhikshu, seeing the dreadful sight before 
him, and having heard the verses just recited, turned with 

^ This seems to correspond to the "spider " simile in ver. 347 of the Pali. 

LUST. 153 

repentance and prostrated himself before Buddha, after 
which, persevering in the way of purity, he soon became 
a Eahat. 

4. In days of old when Buddha was residing at the Jeta- 
vana Yihara, near Sravasti, preaching his law for the 
sake of Devas and men (Nagas and demons), there was at 
this time a certain rich householder who had but one son, 
a youth of about twelve or thirteen years of age. This 
boy's father and mother having died, and he not being 
acquainted with the rules of economising his expenses, 
began to lavish his money on himself and others, till he 
soon came to beggary and want. ISTow the lad's father 
had a certain relative wlio also was very rich ; this man 
one day seeing the sad condition of the youth, had com- 
passion on him, and took him to his own house, and 
finally provided him with an establishment of his own, 
with a wife, slaves, horses, and chariots. But notwith- 
standing his former experience, the young man again gave 
way to extravagance, and was again reduced to poverty, 
and notwithstanding the repeated help of his kinsman 
and patron he was ever thus. At length his relative, tired 
out, sent for the wife of the man, and told her that she 
had better seek another home, and find some one who 
could protect and provide for her in a respectable way. 
On hearing this she returned to her master and said, " My 
lord, you seem unable to provide for our wants, let me ask 
you what you intend to do, for it behoves me to seek 
another home, if there is no provision here for me." On 
hearing this the man was filled with shame and disap- 
pointment, and thought thus with himself — " I am indeed 
a miserable and unhappy man, not knowing how to manage 
my affairs ; and now I am going to lose my wife, and to 
be left to beg again." Thinking thus, and excited by 
recollection of past pleasures and passion, he resolved 
Vv^ckedly to put an end to his wife, and afterwards to kill 
himself. Taking the woman, therefore, into the inner 
apartments, he at once told her his intention to die with 


her there, and then he stabbed her, and afterwards killed 
himself. The servants, finding how the case stood, hastily 
went to the man's rich relation and told him all the cir- 
cumstances ; on this he came with all the people round 
about, and seeing the sad sight he was filled with grief, 
and finally buried them according to the fixed rules of 
the country. Afterwards hearing of Buddha, and the 
comfort which he was able to give by the preaching of 
his word, he came with all his attendants to the place 
where the Master was, and told him of all the thins^s that 
had befallen him. On this Buddha bes^an the followinfr 
discourse : — " Lust and passion (angry passion) are the 
constant miseries of the world. These are the causes of 
all the unhappiness which befalls the foolish man. These 
are the means by which the constant repetition of birth in 
the different conditions of existence (the five ways) is 
continued throughout the three worlds. If the sufferings 
of ages cannot bring men to repentance and amendment, 
how much less can we expect the fool now to become 
wise, and shake off the poison of this lust and covetous 
longing, which destroys his body and ruins his family 
(clan), nay, which destroys and ruins the whole world — 
and if this be so, how can we wonder at what has be- 
fallen this man and his wife. Then the master added 
these lines : 

" The fool self-bound by his covetousness, seeks 
not to escape to that shore. Coveting wealth and 
lustful indulgence, he destroys others and he is 
self-destroyed. The lustful mind is the field, uxo- 
riousness, anger, delusion, are the fruits. There- 
fore he who bestows charity on the non-w^orldly 
man, obtains by so doing boundless happiness 
(merit). Companions few and goods many,"^ the 
merchant, timorous and anxious, given to covetous 

1 This is a literal translation— I cannot render it otherwise. 

LUST. 155 

tliouglits, the robber takes liis life (or, ' these, like 
a robber, take his life'). The wise man, therefore, 
puts away all covetous desire/' 

The lionseliolder hearing these words was filled with 
joy; he forgot his grief, and rising from liis seat, he and 
his associates at once obtained the fruition of the first 

5. In days of old when Buddha was residing in the Jeta- 
vana Vihara, near Sravasti, preaching his word for the 
sake of Devas and men, &c., there happened to be two 
wandering fellows who were sworn friends, and as it were 
one in heart, who being^ in the neic^hbourhood thouf^ht 
they would become Shamans. They came accordingly to 
the place where the master was, and after doing homage 
they explained their wish. Having admitted them to his 
community, he sent them to one place to give themselves 
up to meditation. Notwithstanding all their efforts, how- 
ever, they were unable to forget the pleasures of their 
former life, and were enslaved by longing for sensual in- 
dulgence. Buddha by his divine sight understanding 
their condition, and desiring to save them, caused a 
Shaman to go to their place of abode, and addressing 
them said, " What think you if we three go to the neigh- 
bouring harlot- quarter, and without further ado, have a 
look at the form of one of the beauties about whom you 
think so much ? " Accordingly they all went to the har- 
lots' quarter, and meeting with one (who was indeed only 
Buddha himself so transformed), they asked her to let 
them behold her charms, without actually committing any 
overt-act of transgression. Accordingly the woman began 
to take off her wreaths and her jewels, and gradually 
stripping off her clothes, lo ! such a ghastly sight of defor- 
mity met their eyes, and such a fetid odour assailed their 
sense, that they could not come nigh the place where she 
was. Then the Shaman turned and addressed the two : 
'•' What the world calls beauty is but the combination of 


flowers and ornaments, unguents and dress ; remove these, 
and what is there but unsightlmess and disgusting appear- 
ance ? Is it with such a form as this, the skin wrinkled 
like leather, the body exuding foul smells, that you are so 
madly enamoured, and then he added these verses : 

" lust ! I have discovered thy source and 
origin. Born of the busy recollections that haunt 
the mind. Now will I no more think of thee or 
these ; then thou shalt not longer exist for me. Of 
the mind alone is lustful desire ; from oneself arise 
the ^NQ. longings of sense. Haste, then, to bind 
these five desires, and prove thyself a hero indeed ! 
Where there is no lust there is no anxious fear ; 
at rest, and quiet, there are no more harrowing 
cares for such an one — desire expelled, its tram- 
mels for ever cast away. This is indeed to find 
true deliverance (lit, " for long to come out of the 
gulf (of misery)) " [probably the same as " Ogha- 
tin?ia," vide M.M. 370]. 

Then Buddha, having assumed his glorious appearance, 
the two Shamans were filled with shame, and with deep 
repentance fell down at his feet and did obeisance. And 
after listening further to his instruction they ^ became 
Eahats. Now as they were returning to their place of 
abode, the one seeing the happy, contented face of the 
other, asked his companion the reason of it, on which he 
repeated over and over the following lines : — 

" Day and night was I a slave of lustful desires, 
incessantly did my mind dwell on these thoughts ; 
but now I have seen the woman I lono;ed for so 

^ Or, as the following lines would indicate, only one was able to arrive at 
this condition. 

LUST. 157 

miicli ill all her naked deformity, my tlioughts 
Lave perislied, I have no more sorrow. 

On hearing these words, his companion was able to 
shake off the trammels of lust, and immediately received 
Divine illumination (eyes of the Law). 

( 158 ) 



Formerly Buddha with his followers, havinf^ rrone to the 
kingdom of Kausambi (Ku-tan-mi), he took up his resi- 
dence in the Yihara called Mi-yin (lovely sound), and 
there preached the word for the sake of Devas and men. 
At this time the king of the country was called Yau-tien 
(Udayana), whose queen was of a remarkably pure cha- 
racter. Having heard that Buddha had come to his king- 
dom, the King and the Queen, with her attendants, went 
forth to visit liim, and having paid him the usual saluta- 
tions, they sat down. Then Buddha, for their sakes, be- 
gan to preach and to show the impermanency, sorrow, and 
vanity of things around us, from which all our miseries 
come. And then he proved that heaven was the reward 
of religious merit (virtue), and hell the result of sin (crime). 
In consequence of this sermon both the King and Queen 
were induced to accept the five rules of a lay- disciple, and 
so returned to tlie palace. Now at this time there was a 
certain Brahman called Kih-sing (lucky star), who had . a 
daughter incomparable for loveliness, just sixteen years 
old. On her account the Brahman, for ninety days, ex- 
posed a heap of a thousand gold masurans, and challenged 
any one to find a single fault in her, and whoever could 
do so should have the gold. No one being able to do so, 
and desiring to find some one fit for her to marry, he again 
challenged any one to bring a man equal to his daughter 
in grace, and to him he would give her as a wife. Now, 

^ This section, as I have already observed, does not occur in the Pali. 


having heard that the family of the Shaman Gotama, 
known as the Sakyas, were remarkable for their beauty, 
and that therefore he was fit to possess his daughter, he 
came to the place where Buddha was, and taking his 
daughter with him, after the usual salutations, he spake 
thus : — " My daughter is extremely beautiful, and un- 
equalled for womanly grace ; and you also, Gotama, are 
remarkable for your beauty. You may, therefore, have 
my daughter, and make her your companion (wife)." To 
whom Buddha replied, " Your daughter's beauty, sir, is 
according to your own estimation ; my beauty is accord- 
ing to that of the Buddhas ; my beauty and a woman's 
beauty are wholly different. Your daughter's loveliness, 
sir, is like that of the picture on the jar (or vessel), in 
the middle of which there is only filth and excrement. 
How can that be considered as beauty which belongs only 
to the eyes, the ears, the nose, the mouth, the body ? It 
is this beauty of outside form that causes sorrow, over- 
turns families, destroys kinship, sacrifices relationships, 
kills children ; all these come from this (love of) womanly 
beauty. But I am a Shaman — I stand by myself — and 
would rather endure any calamity than comply with your 
request. Sir, you may go ; I decline your offer." 

On this the Brahman departed highly irate ; and then, 
coming into the presence of the King, he dilated on his 
daughter's beauty, and offered her to him. The King, 
highly pleased at her appearance, accepted her, and made 
her his second Queen. Having laden her with presents 
and jewelry, she soon began to fill his mind with jealous 
thoughts and dislike for the first Queen, and at last per- 
suaded him to send for her on a certain occasion to in- 
dulge her fancy (knowing that she would not come). Con- 
sequently the King sent for her, on which the first Queen 
declined to appear, on the ground that she was engaged 
in some religious exercise (fast), and so for several occa- 
sions. The King, enraged thereat, sent a man with a rope 
to drag her into his presence ; and when she was brought 


in, lie took his bow and purposed to slioot her through 
the body. But lo ! the arrow he discharged returned 
again towards the King, and did her no harm ; and so 
a2:ain and ac^ain. On this the Kin^?, filled with astonish- 
nient (fear), said to her, " By what power of magic have 
you been able to bring this about ? " To which she re- 
plied, " I have but taken refuge in the three gems, and 
the whole day have been engaged in religious observances 
(fasts), and on this account the Lord (World-honoured) 
has protected me." On this the King exclaimed, " Won- 
derful ! " and, dismissing the second Queen, he sent her 
back to her parents, and re-established the first in undis- 
puted authority. Then, with the Queen's attendants, he 
went to the place where Buddha was, and after due salu- 
tations, he explained to him what had happened, on which 
Buddha (after a short discourse) repeated these lines : — 

'' If Heaven were to rain down the seven pre- 
cious substances, yet would not the covetous man 
be satisfied ; his pleasure would be little, his sorrow 
much. The wise man, possessed of virtue, although 
he possessed the pleasures of Heaven, would wisely 
let them go, and covet them not. He who finds his 
happiness in removing thoughts of lustful enjoy- 
ment, this man is the disciple of Buddha/' 

Then Buddha further explained to the King the inevi- 
table result of a wicked life, that it would redound ten 
thousand times more miserably on the guilty man, whilst 
the reward of religion and self-denial would be certainly 
the enjoyment of heaven. Having so spoken, the King 
and the Queen's attendants, and the rest, received perfect 
release, and became partakers in the Paths. 

( i6i ) 



In days of old, when Buddha was residing in the Jeta- 
vana Vihara, near Sravasti, preaching his doctrine for the 
sake of Devas and men, there was a certain Bhikshu, 
young in years, who used every morning to assume his 
robe, and take his mendicant's staff and begging-dish, and 
go through the streets of the town begging his food. On 
the way there was a certain nobleman's garden, on the 
outside part of which were sown certain esculant plants, 
and the ground guarded by a contrivance for discharging 
arrows at whatever beast, or thief, came there to trespass 
or steal. Moreover, as guardian of the ground, there was 
a girl of tender age left, who used to warn travellers away 
from the place if they had missed their way, or were likely 
to trespass on the field without knowing the danger, lest 
they should be shot. 

Now it came to pass that on one occasion the Bhikshu, 
having gone his round through the city, was returning 
homewards, when, on passing the spot, he heard the plain- 
tive alarm of the girl as she sang out to him to beware ; 
and his passions being roused thereby, he thought to go 
in and hold some conversation with her, and amuse him- 
self. While assaying to do this he was filled with sudden 
fear, he let his staff fall, and his robes were disordered, and 
his alms-dish disarranged ; when Buddha, by his divine 
sight, seeing how the case stood, and that in a moment or 
two the Bhikshu would be pierced by the arrows, and so 

perish in his sin, transformed himself into a white-robed 



layman, and standing by the side of the Bhikshu, repeated 
these expostulatory stanzas : — 

" Shaman ! whither o^oest thou ? unsfuarded 
in the workings of thought. Step by step becom- 
ing more immersed in the slough, as you follow 
your evil purpose. Disgrace not your robes by 
such evil conduct as you purpose ! Death stares 
you in the face as you go forward ! Stem the 
stream (of inclination), pause and reflect, trample 
down the lustful desire. A man who does not 
destroy desire is led on by one thought alone (to 
do this and that, till he destroys and ruins him- 
self). Be up then, and dare to do 1 Bind thyself 
fast. The man who has left home (to become a 
Shaman), and yet gives way to idleness and sloth — 
whose mind still hankers after impure indulgence 
— is like the rotten tree against which the wind 
blows, which can hardly resist its force, but is soon 
blown down." 

Then Buddha, having assumed his glorious appearance, 
the Bhikshu, ashamed of his weakness, fell down at the 
master's feet, and, deeply repenting, soon became a Rahat ; 
and countless others who heard the circumstances, belong- 
ing to the Yihara, received divine illumination. 

( i63 ) 



In days of old, in a certain mountain (called Sse-yau- 
clm-to) in the country of Saketa (Sse-ho-teli), there were 
resident some 500 Brahmans who pretended to have 
arrived at final release (Mrvana), in consideration of their 
miraculous powers (irrdhi). Now at this time Buddha, 
having just arrived at complete enlightenment, and begin- 
ning to sound the drum of the law, and open the doors of 
immortality, was induced, on account of these Brahma- 
charins, to come into their neighbourhood, and sitting 
beneath a tree, to reveal the splendour of his person. 
After some conversation with them, he repeated these 
verses : 

*' Stem the stream and pass over, without desire 
as a Brahman ! Understanding the end of all that 
is made (or, of all modes of conduct), this is truly 
named (the life of a) Brahmacharin.^ In (or, by 
means of) the two laws of nothingness,^ pure and 
spotless passing over the gulf, casting off all the 
bonds of desire, this is to be a Brahmacharin (in- 
deed). It is not by his clan, or his platted hair, 
that a man is called a Brahman, but he who walks 
truthfully and righteously, he is indeed rightly 
called a good man (Bhadra). What avails the 

^ The reader will observe the similarity of the P^li version, vers. 383, kc. 
2 The sense appears to be " regarding both this world and the other as 
nothing." Compare the Pali o?'ajjdra. 


platted liair, fool ! the garment of grass, wliat 
good ? Within there is no quittance of desire, 
then what advantage the outward denial of self ? 
Put away lust, hatred, delusion, sloth and all its 
evil consequences, as the snake puts off its skin, 
this is to be a Brahmacharin indeed. Separate 
yourself from all worldly associations — let the 
mouth speak no foul words — thoroughly investi- 
gate the eight paths (Ashtanga marga), this is to 
be a Brahmacharin indeed. To have cast off all 
thoughts of family affection, to have given up all 
desire after home, and all the bonds of personal 
preference loosed, this is to be a Brahmacharin in- 
deed. He who has given up all thoughts about 
this world or the next, and places no reliance on 
either — this man is a Brahmacharin indeed. He 
who understands his own previous history, and has 
come to an end of all future chance of birth or 
death, him I call a Brahmacharin. He who is per- 
fect in knowledge, is a Brahmacharin." 

Having thus spoken, Buddha addressed the Brahma- 
charins in these words : 

'' You who profess to have arrived at Nirvana, 
are but as fishes in a pool of shallow water ! What 
pleasure or satisfaction can you expect ? " 

The Brahmacharins havinej heard these words and con- 
sidered them, bowed down before Buddha, and having 
been admitted into his community, soon became Eahats. 
The other hearers, also filled with joy, were enabled to 
enter the Paths. 

( i65 ) 



In days of old when Buddha was residing in the Gridhra- 
kuta Mountain, near Kajagriha, with the whole assembly 
of the Bhikshus, 1250 in number, the King of Magadha, 
whose name was Ajatasatru, being then ruler of 100 king- 
doms, was in perplexity as to one of them called Yuechi 
(Getse ?), which refused to pay him tribute, although the 
country abounded in wealth, and was highly prosperous. 
On this the King sent his prime minister called Yu-she, to 
ask Buddha what he should do, and whether he would be 
successful in using force against the rebellious kingdom. 
Having come into the presence of Buddha and put the 
question, the World-honoured replied : " So long as the 
King of the Yue-chi observes the seven rules, he will 
not be easily overcome." On this the minister inquired as 
to the character of these seven rules, to which the master 
answered: (i.) "So long as the people of the Yue-chi 
observe right rules in self-government, in their several 
villages and communities, so long they will be able to 
protect themselves. (2.) So long as the ministers and 
rulers hold together, and agree, and govern justly, so 
long, &c. (3.) So long as they in a national view, obey 
the laws, and submit to their direction without partiality 
or favour, so long they will be unconquerable. (4.) So 
loner as the Yue-chi observe the rules of decorum between 
man and woman, and depart not from these rules of pro- 
priety, so long, &c. (5.) So long as the Yue-chi observe 

1 The chapters which follow are not found in the Pali. 


the rules of reverence due to father and mother and other 
relations, and dutifully provide for their wants, so long, 
&c. (6.) So long as the Yue-chi religiously observe the 
ceremonies of the four seasons, in doinc^ homaf:re to heaven 
and earth, so long, &c. (7.) So long as the Yue-chi pay 
respect to all their religious teachers (Shamans), and espe- 
cially those who have come to them from far (travellerv<5 
or religious guests), and provide them with the usual neces- 
saries, such as food, bedding, medicine, &c., so long, &c. ' 
These are the seven rules, if the Yue-chi observe onlv 
one of them, it would be difficult to overpower them, how 
much more if they regard the seven, and then the World- 
honoured added these words : — 

'^ Eely not too entirely on the advantage of 
victory (conquest), for though you may prevail in 
battle, yet there is still sorrow in store ; rather 
should a man seek the rules of self-conquest, 
having conquered himself, then there will be no 
further ground for birth (or, continued life)." 

The minister having heard these words, was imme- 
diately convinced (obtained the rudiments of truth 
(wisdom or Bodhi)), and those in the assembly who had 
not yet entered the Paths, were enabled to do so. The 
minister then rising from his seat, begged permission to 
depart, and on being so permitted by Buddha, he went 
back to the King and told him what the master had said. 
On this the King gave up all his intentions to go to war, 
and in consequence the Yue-chi returned to their obedi- 
ence and submitted to the King. 

( i67 ) 



In days of old when Buddha was residing in the Jetavana 
Yihara, near Sravasti, preaching his law^ for the sake of 
Devas and men, there was a certain rich householder, a 
Brahman, who had a son just twenty years old, who had 
recently married a wife. And now seven days had passed 
after the marriage, when the young pair agreed to go 
together to the after-garden to look at the beautiful trees 
and flowers. It was just the third month of spring-time 
when they sallied forth. Amongst the other trees there 
was one beautiful plum-tree in blossom, the flowers of 
which were beyond their reach, but yet the bride longed 
to have one. On this the young man assayed to climb 
the tree to get his love a flower. Having reached a top- 
most branch, lo ! it gave way beneath his weight, and he 
fell to the OTound and was killed. Then there was sreat 
lamentation among the members of his family. The wails 
and cries of his friends resounded on every side — and 
after returning from his funeral obsequies — which were 
conducted according to the rules of religion — the house 
was again filled with the sounds of grief and lamentation. 
On this the World-honoured, perceiving the circumstances 
of the case, came at once to the dwelling. On seeing him, 
the father and mother and all the rest went forth and did 
him reverence ; and on explaining the cause of their grief 
the master addressed the householder and said, " Cease 

1 The expression used liere for "law," implies "the expanded law," or 
" saddharraa." 


your lamentations, and listen to me ! All things around 
you are inconstant and destined to change ! Once born, 
then there is death. Sin and its consequences are neces- 
sarily bound up together. And who is this youth, and 
who his relations for whom ye weep so pitifully and 
without intermission?" And then the Master repeated 
these verses : — 

*' What is life but the flower or the fruit which 
falls, when ripe, but yet which ever fears the un- 
timely frost ? Once born there is nought but 
sorrow ; for who is there can escape death ? From 
the first moment of conception in the womb, the 
result of passionate love and desire, there is nought 
but the bodily form, transitory as the lightning 
flash. It is difficult to dam up the daily flow of 
the waters of life. The body is but a thing des- 
tined to perish. There is no certain form given 
to the spirit conceived with the body. Once dead 
it is again born — the connections of sin and of 
merit cannot be overreached. It is not a matter 
of one life, or one death, but from the act of 
renewed conception proceeds all the consequences 
of former deeds, resulting in joy or misery; the 
body dies but the spirit is not entombed ! " 

After these verses were said, Buddha explained that the 
cause of the untimely death of the young bridegroom 
was, that in former days he had ruthlessly shot a young 
sparrow through the body, as he wandered through the 
garden of his house with three companions; and then after 
explaining the consequences of this proceeding in each 
case the World-honoured added these verses : 


It is the mind alone (spirit) that determines 


the character of (life in) the three worlds. Just as 
the life has been virtuous or the contrary, is the 
subsequent career of the individual. Living in the 
dark, darkness will follow ; the consequent birth is 
as the echo from the cavern, immersed in carnal 
desires, there cannot be any thing but carnal appe- 
tite ; all things result from previous conduct, as 
the traces follow the elephant-step, or the shadow 
the substance." 

After hearing these words, the householder and those 
who accompanied him were filled with joy, and accepted 
the terms of discipleship, and finally entered the Paths. 

( I70 ) 



I . There was in former days a certain King wlio ruled his 
people justly, and with an earnest desire for their good ; 
but he had no son to succeed him. Buddha, having come 
to his kingdom, he went to hear him preach, and being 
convinced of the truth he became a disciple. After this 
he ceased not to pray earnestly for a son. Now he had a 
little servant boy (keih-shi ?) about eleven years old, who 
also devoted himself to religious exercises and the repeti- 
tion of Scripture. This boy having died, w^as re-incar- 
nated as a child of the King his master, and when he had 
arrived at the age of fifteen years he was publicly acknow- 
ledged as the Prince Eoyal (Kumara). After a while, the 
King having died, the Prince ascended the throne, and 
he soon gave way to evil habits of self-indulgence, and 
the people and the kingdom suffered in consequence. On 
this Buddha, knowing all the circumstances of the case, 
once more visited the kingdom, and the Piaja having gone 
to meet him, paid the usual obeisance. Buddha then be- 
gan to explain to the King how it was he had come to his 
present royal dignity — viz., by his attention in former 
births to the five religious duties of a Shaman, which are 
these — 1st, charity; 2d, founding rehgious buildings; 3d, 
reverence in w^orship ; 4th, patience and self-restraint ; 
5 th, diligent search after truth. By observing these he 
had attained his present rank; and then the World- 
honoured added these words, and said : — 


" A man wlio knows how to reverence the hiofher 
powers, his parents, and religious teachers — who is 
full of faith, and obedience, and charity, and wis- 
dom — shall certainly in the end attain a fortunate 
condition of birth. His destiny being thus a feli- 
citous one, if born in the world he will be a ruler 
of men^ (" prince," or " honourable," among men), 
and by his wisdom will be able to control the 
empire. Keverencing the law, it cannot be but 
that he will become lord of men. And so continu- 
ing in the path of virtue, and not receding there- 
from, he will ever be so born, and without any 
intermission enjoy increasing happiness." 

Buddha having thus spoken, explained how the King 
had come to his present dignity, and urged him not to give 
way, now he had attained such a position, to the tempta- 
tions of sense, and then added these lines : — 

'^ The man who possesses authority in the world, 
practising himself in right dealing, and not using 
violence, regulating his thoughts, and overcoming 
all wicked desires, thus becomes a king of the law 
(or a righteous king). Seeing that which is right, 
he is able to do good ; loving virtue, he is able to 
profit men ; and thus, by an impartiality of con- 
duct, he treats all and makes all, as it were, his 
own equals and fellows." 

The King having heard these words, was filled with 
penitence, and bowing down at Buddha's feet, he received 
the five rules of a lay disciple, and entered the first Path. 

2. In days of old, when Buddha was residing at the Jeta- 
vana Vihara, near Sravasti, preaching his law for the good 

1 Compare the Greek &.va.^ a.v^p<j}v [Juventus Mundi, cap. vi.). 


of Devas and men, at this time there was in a country 
some way to the south a very large elephant of a three- 
fold colour, white, blue, and black, which the King very 
much desired to capture and to tame, so as to make it one 
of his fighting elephants. Accordingly having despatched 
his chief hunter for the purpose, he waited in expectation 
of his command being obeyed. Now there was at this 
time in the mountains a certain divine elephant, his body 
white as snow, his tail red as vermilion, and his tusks 
yellow as gold. Having seen this creature, the hunter re- 
turned to the King, and asked him whether the elephant 
he had been sent to capture was of this kind. The King 
immediately ordered the beast to be taken and brought to 
him. On this the hunter, with thirty men, went in pur- 
suit of him. Having come to the spot, and surrounded 
the place, the elephant, knowing their purpose, allowed 
the men to approach him, and then, filled with fury, he 
rushed at them and trampled the nearest to death, and 
put the others to flight. Now at this time in the side of 
the mountain there was a young and lusty hermit, who 
had long practised his religious austerities without arriving 
at any degree of fixedness. Seeing from a distance the 
sad case of these hunters, and pitying their condition, 
relying on his strength, he hurried to the spot, hoping to 
save them. Meantime Buddha, seeing the danger of this 
Bhikshu, and fearing lest the divine elephant should kill 
him, quickly transported himself to the place, and stand- 
ing beside the elephant, caused the glory of his person to 
exhibit itself. The elephant, seeing the brilliancy of the 
body of Buddha, appeased his rage, and gave up the pur- 
suit of. the men. The Bhikshu also seeing the wonderful 
light that shone forth, bowed down at Buddha's feet, who 
forthwith repeated these verses : — 

'^ Be not so foolishly angry with the divine 
elephant as thus to entangle yourself in the certain 
calamity that will follow your conduct ; the evil 


thought produces self-destruction, and in the end 
accomplishes no good." 

The Bhikslm, having heard these words, was convinced 
that he was wrong in giving loose to the thoughts he had, 
and in deep penitence bowing at Buddha's feet, obtained 

[The next story is that of Buddha, in a similar way to 
the last, converting a Eaksha, who had attacked a city to 
the south of Eajagriha, and devoured many of its inhabi- 
tants ; on which occasion the Master recited these lines : — 

*' One who is able to rely upon the saving power 
of virtue (virtuous, or moral conduct), a happy 
destiny ever follows that man, and by perception 
of religious truth (the law) he becomes conspicuous 
among his fellow-men. And thus he finally escapes 
the three evil modes of birth ; getting rid of anger 
by strict moral government, he also drives away 
sorrow and fear ; he rises to be chief of the three 
worlds (Buddha) ; then neither N4gas or demons, or 
noxious, poisonous snakes, can hurt Mm, the man 
who disobeys not the laws of virtuous conduct."] 

[The next story relates to Buddha when he was in a 
former birth a chakravarttin (universal monarch), and 
made a rule that he and his descendants shoukl give up 
their empire and become Shamans on the appearance of 
the first white hair on their heads (a similar story is found 
in the "previous history" of Buddha, in the " Eomantic 
Legend," pp. 18, 19)]. 

( 174 ) 



When Buddha was residing in the G-ridhrakuta Mountain, 
near Eajagriha, preaching for the benefit of Devas and 
men, there was residing on the banks of the Ganges a 
certain Brahmacharin, belonging to the Nirgrantha sect, of 
considerable age and vast wisdom. This man, with his 
500 followers, devoted himself to the study of the stars 
and heavenly bodies, with a view to predict lucky and 
unlucky events. On one occasion, just before Buddha had 
commenced his public ministry, this man, with his dis- 
ciples, were discussing the question of " good fortune," as 
they sat by the river's side ; and after explaining in what 
good fortune consisted, so far as it concerned the happi- 
ness of a prince in his worldly empire, the question arose 
as to what ''good fortune" was when considered in refer- 
ence to the future. After much discussion, they resolved 
to go to the Bodhi Tree, where the World-honoured had 
just overcome Mara, and put this question to him. What 
is the secret of real " good fortune " ? On which the 
Master opened his mouth and repeated these lines : — 

" Buddha, the Honoured above all gods, Tatha- 
gata, the ever- wise and intelligent, is asked by the 
learned sages of the Brahmacharin sect in what 
consists the enjoyment of good fortune. On this 
Buddha, the compassionate, for their sake enun- 
ciates true wisdom. He who has faith, and de- 

^ This section agrees with the " Muhamangala Sutta" of the Sutta Nipata. 


lights in tlie true Law, tliis man is fortunate above 
all others. He who looks for good luck neither 
from gods or sacrifices to spirits (but from himself) 
is truly fortunate. A friend of the virtuous, and 
holding with the righteous, always making the 
consideration of virtue his first aim, keeping his 
body in strict obedience to the rules of propriety, 
this man is fortunate indeed! Avoidiner bad 
people and following the good, giving up wine, 
and using strict moderation in all personal gratifi- 
cation, not lusting after female beauty, this man is 
indeed a fortunate one. Ever anxious to listen to 
the rules of right conduct, persevering in the study 
of the Law and Eules of Discipline (Dharma and 
Vinaya), self-restrained and without offence, this 
man is fortunate above all. If a householder, then 
cariuo; for his father and mother, and lookino^ after 
the welfare of his house, and properly fostering his 
wife and child, not occupying himself in vain and 
useless avocations, this man is indeed fortunate. 
Not giving way to idleness or self-honour, knowing 
the character of moderation (as to himself), and 
thoughtful of his friends, at proper times reading 
the Scriptures and practising (himself in them), 
this man is truly fortunate. Patiently continuing 
in the way of duty (of what he hears he ought to 
do), rejoicing to see a religious person (Shaman), 
and ever invitins^ such an one to instruct him in 
religion, this man is happy. Observing the reli- 
gious seasons (fasts), and during such seasons using 
strict self- abstinence, always desiring to see the 
virtuous and holy man, placing his confidence in 


tlie instruction of tlie enlightened, tins man is for- 
tunate. Once convinced of the happiness of reli- 
gion (Bodhi), then with upright heart never swerv- 
ing from his faith, desiring above all things to 
escape the three evil ways (of birth), this man is 
truly happy. With equal mind, devoting himself 
to charity, honouring all the wise alike, and pay- 
ing respect to the Divine Spirits, this man is in- 
deed happy. Always anxious to get rid of sensual 
desires and covetousness, to escape from delusive 
thoughts, ignorance, and anger, ever constant in 
the pursuit of true wisdom, this man is indeed for- 
tunate. Even in discarding the evil using no ex- 
traordinary appearance of effort, but steadily per- 
severing in the practice of what is right, always 
acting as he ought to act, this man is fortunate 
indeed. Full of love for all things in the world, 
practising virtue in order to benefit others, this 
man alone is happy. The wise man dwelling in 
the world, pursuing this line of fortunate behaviour 
with constancy, ever pressing onwards to complete 
what knowledge he has gained, this is a happy man 

The Brahmacharin, having heard the instruction of 
Buddha, felt his heart full of joy ; immediately he arose 
and worshipped, and took refuge in Buddha, the Law, and 
the Churcli. 

The Nirgrantha and his followers, having heard these 
words, were very glad, and after due worship they ob- 
tained permission to become Shamans, and soon obtained 
inward illumination (the eyes of the Law). 




UK \.' i «< 



HIGHSMITH # 45220 



Texts from the Buddhist canon, commonly 

Princeton Theological Seminary-Speer Library 

1 1012 00033 9343